Xncnv

     ASbv


imkv{X\maw:
: Asc Isp :

sshhn[yam av - Imemhm taJeIfn ASbv hfcpp.  kap{Z\ncn \nv 1000 ao hsc Dbcap efn \\bvm kuIcyapWvsSnepw agsb B{ibnpw CXv hfcpw.  sNv, Nph temw av, G av Fo an\ ASbbvv ]YyamWv. 

  • C\

awKf, kpawKf, {ioawKf, samlnX\K  

  • Irjnew

\ XmgvNbpw \ohmbpap eamWv ASbv hfm \v.  btYjvSw \\bvm kuIcyapWvSmbncnWw.

  • amXrhrw

t\cs ImbvpI, ncambn Imbv ]nSnbvpI, CScw Dbcw FnhbmWv \ amXrhrns KpW.

  • hnSbv

CSbvp IpeIfn \mbn hnfp ]gp IpeIfn \np hnSbv tiJcnWw.  ]qhfsbmXpw `mcpdhpffXpw cq]sshIyXapXpamb ImbvI HgnhmWw.

  • \gvkdn

hnfshSpbpS hnSbv sXscSpv \gvkdnbn ]mIpI. sRw apIfnemn 5 sk.ao CSbIew \In thWw ]mIm.  hnSb aW sImWvSp ]mIn Znhkhpw \\bpI.

2-3 CeIfp 90 Znhks hfbmb ASbvmss cWvSmw \gvkdnbntebvv amn \SWw.  150 sk.ao hoXnbpw kuIcy{]Zamb \ofhpap XS XmdmnbncnWw.  CXn slIvSdn\v 5 S FtXmXn Imenhfw ASnhfambn tNpI.  30*30 sk.ao AIen thWw ssXI \Sm.  ssXIġnSbn hmg \tm IrXnaamtbm XW \Imw.  XWen\p thWvSn hfptm hmg 2.7*3.6 ao AIew \In thWw \Sm.  th\¡mev \\bvpIbpw hjImev \ohmm kuIcyw DWvSmpIbpw thWw. IfsbSppw ]pXbnSepw XpScpI. 

  • ssXIfpsS sXscSpv

{][m\ Irjntv 12-18 amkw hfbmb \ ssXIsf Hcp ske CUIvkns ASnm\n thWw sXscSpm CeIfpsS Fs 40 sImWvSv KpWnbvpIbpw AXn \nv ssXpsS Dbcw IpdbvpIbpamWv CXn\p sNtWvSXv.  Dbcw ske CUIvkv aqeyap ssXI thWw sXscSpm.

DZmlcWw

ssX Dbcw = 90 sk.ao

CeIfpsS Fw -= 5

ske CUIvkv (5*40) - 90 = 110    

  • \So

tXmns sXp- ]Snmd `mKfn ssXIġv shbn XmXncnm XW ac \p ]nSnnWw.

hSp- sXp Znibnembn 2.7ao*2.7ao : AIen FSp IpgnIfn ssXI \SpI.

60*60*60 sk.ao henap IpgnIfn hfpdp  taav Nphn \nv 15 sk.ao Dbcn hsc \ndbvpI.  IpgnbpsS a[y`mKmbn ssX \v av Nppw AapI. \ohmbp an tabv - PqWnemWv ssX \tSWvSXv.  sNfnap efn BKv - sk]vw_dn thWw CXp \Sm.  BZys 4-5 hjmew ASbvmssIġnSbvp hcnIfn hmg \v XW \Imw.

  • hfw

\v BZyhjw apX Xs Hcp ssXbvv 12 In.{Kmw F tXmXn ]netbm Itmtm tNWw. sk]w_ - HIvtm_dnemWv CXv sNtWvSXv.

{]mb]qnbmb hrġv ss\{SP, t^mkv^dkv, s]mmjv Fnh 100:40:140 {Kmw/ hrw F tXmXn \IWw.

CXn 1/3 `mKw \v BZyhjhpw 2/3 `mKw cWvSmw hjhpw aqmw hjhpw apX apgph Afhpw \Imw.  \\p hfp efn cmkhf cWvSp Xpey AfhpIfmbn hn`Pnv BZy KUp sk]vw_ - HIvtSm_dnepw. cWvSmw KUp s^{_phcnbnepw tNWw.  agsb B{ibnp IrjnsNptm cWvSmw KUp hfw amv- G{]nen th\ ag InptXmsS thWw \Im, sk]vw_ - HIvtSm_dn acn\p Nppw 15-20 sk.ao XmgvNbn 0.75-1 ao hsc AIen FSpp XSfn thWw hfw tNm.  cWvSmw KUp hfw IfsbSpn\p tijw acns XSn tNv an ctWvSm aqtm hjnsemcn acsamn\v Ac In. {Kmw  Ipmbw amv - G{]nen \Imw. 

  • \\bpw \ohmbpw

ans Xca\pkcnv 3-5 Znhkw hnp CSthfIfn th\¡v \\bvWw. hnkvXrXamb ASbvmtmfp ]Snmd {]tZifn \hw_- Unkw_dn Gtgm, Gtm Znhknsemcntem, P\phcn - s^{_phcnbn BdpZnhknsemcntem amv - G{]n tabn aqv apX Ap Znhknsemcntem \\bv XpScWw.

Hmtcm \\bnepw acsamn\v 175 en F tXmXn Pew \IWw. PeZue`yap efn Xpn\\ \SpIbmWv A`nImayw.  tXmn  ]pXbnSpXv anse \\hv \ne\nm \XmWv.

shsn\v km[yXbp Ahkcfn 25-30 sk.an XmgvNbn NmepIsfSpv \ohm kuIcyw sNbvXp sImSpWw.

  • IrjnWnI

HIvtSm_-\hw_dn ag amdptXmsS tXmn sNdpXmbn anf \Sn IfIfn \nv hnapampI.  Ncn efn hcpI Xncnv asmenv XSbpI.  ssktemkmkv, IetKmWnbw XpSnb ]nehf hnpI G{]n-tabn hnXv sk]vw_ - HIvtSm_dn acġp \IWw. 

  • CShnf 

tN\, ssIXN, IpcpapfIv, shne, hmg, Kn\npv, sImtm, Cn, Gew XpSnb hnfI ASbvmtmn CShnfbmbn hfmw.  sImtm BWv \SpsXn 2.7*5.4 ao CSbIew \IWw.  Fmbmepw Fm hnfIfpw shtsd \\bpIbpw hfw \Inbpw thWw hfm. 

kkykwcWw

  • IoS

  • aWvUcn

Hmdv \ndap aWvUcnIsf \nb{nphm 0.05% hocyap ssUsatmtbv tcmK_m[bp IpeIfn XfnWw. 

  • kv]nUn Nmgn (Imhtembnb Acs)

ASbvm acns HmeIfnepw XWvSnepsams kv]nUn Nmgn D]{Zhw sNpp. Nmgn ]nb CeI \ndwamw ImWnpw.   ASbvm acn aWvSbn Im_mdn 50 {]tbmKnpI.   CebSppIfn acpv ]XnbWw.  IoSieyw hoWvSpw XpScppshn 30-35 t^mtdv 2Pn F IoS\min\n 10 {Kmw hoXw IngnsIn Ghpw apIfnep cWvSphcn HmehnfIfn acpp \n_ambpw ]XnbWw.

  • ]qpepg (_msI{U kv]ojokv)

]qpebn \nv ]qhv _eambn Xpdv ametbm 50 C kn (100 en shůn 250 ann acpv) XfnpI. ]pgphns D]{Zhn\v kmlNcysamcpp HpIsf sam UnsslUv s_bnv D]tbmKnv \nb{npIbpw thWw. 

  • thcpXo\npgp (eqtmt^mfnkv _sdn)

acns Nphn XSnep av 10-15 sk.ao XmgvNbn InfnfpI.  an 0.04% hocyap tmss]dnt^mkv emb\n cWvSp XhW Hgnp IpXnpI.  Hv tabn sXp - ]Snmd Imehjn\p sXmv ap]pw ASpXv sk]vw_ - HIvtSm_dn ag XocptXmS\p_npw XpSbmbn ctWvSm aqtm hjw acpp {]tbmKw XpSm am{Xta ]qamb IoS\nb{Ww DdmpIbpp.  t^mtdv 10 Pn  F acpv an {]tbmKnpw thcpXo\npgpsf \nb{nmw. 

  • tcmK  

  • amlmfn (ss^tm^vtXmd ]manthm)

1% hocyap t_mtUman{inXw Hcp hjw aqv {]mhiyambn Fm IpeIfnepw XfnbvpI, Hv sXp-]Snmd Imehjn\p sXmp ap]pw _mn 40 Znhkw CShnv cWvSp XhW Ifmbpw.  ag \oWvSp\n¡ppshn aqmasXmcp acppXfn IpsS \IpI. an{inXtmsSmw tdmkn  tkmU IqsS tNm acpv HnnSnv Henpt]mImsX \ne\n¡pw.  tcmK_m[tb Fm ImbvIfpw \ow sNpIbpw \innpIbpw sNpI. 

  • IppNob (ss^tm^vtXmd ]manthmd)

tcmK_m[tb \Sp\mpw HmeIfpw \ow sNpI.  tcmKns XpSnemsWn tcmK_m[bp AgpInb `mK sNnamn AhnsS t_mtUm Ipgv ]pcpI.  IapIn Xen 1 t_mtUman{inXhpw Xfnbvmw.

  • NphSgpI (Kmt\msUa eqknUw)

  1. tcmK_m[bp ac Nphn \nv Hcp ao amdn 60 sk.ao XmgvNbnepw 30 sk.an hoXnbnepw IpgnI Ipgnv HsSppI.  Nphn Im]vm (0.3), ImenIvkn (0.1) tIm HmIvkntmssdUv (0.3) Chbnsemcp Ipan \in\n Hgnp IpXnmw.

  2. KpcpXcambn tcmKw_m[n Fm  ASbvm acfpw apdnp \on \innpI.

  3. ]pXnb ssXI \Spw ap]p 1% hocyap t_mtUman{inXw D]tbmKnv ap IpXnpI.

  4. tXmn\cnIn sUtemWnIvkv doPnb, s]mmanb m{_ Fo BXntYb kky hfcm A\phZncpXv.

  5. 2 In.{Kmw hoXw thn ]nmv \IpI

  6. tcmK_m[bpXpw CmXpamb acsf Xn _nnp shw Ibn \\ HgnhmpI.   

  • Hme afnv

1.   ip]mi sNbvXnp Afhn cmkhf \IpI

2. CXn\p ]pdsa Hme afnv ImWp tXmfn 160 {Kmw tdmv t^mkv^dkv tNpI.

3.Hcp acn\v Hcp hjw 12 In. {Kmw F tXmXn ssPhhfw (]ne hftam, Itmtm) \IpI.

4. th\ amkfn \n_ambpw \\bvpI.

5. tXmn shw sIm CSbmmXncnpI .

6. tXmn BhcW hnfI Iyjn sNpI

7. Ipdp acġmWv XpSn afnsSpn Ahsb bYm kabw \om\mbm, thKw ]noSv ]ScpXp XSbmw. 

  • _mUv tcmKw 

ans LS\ sasSpm\p {]h\ sNpI.  thWvS{X  \ohmNmkuIcyw  \IpI.  kv]nUn Nmgn, aoenaq, i¡{]mWn, aWvUcn FnhsbXnsc \nb{W\S]SnI kzoIcnpI.  Xpcnipw \opIbpw Xpeybfhn s]mSnp tNsSp an{inXw Hcp acn\v 225 {Kmw F tXmXn hjn cWvSv {]mhiyw tcmK_m[nXamb  acn\v Nphn tNpI. acsamn\v 25 {Kmw F tXmXn t_mdmIvkv \IpXpw \v. 

  • ssX AgpI 

\gvkdn.bnepw tXmnepw \ohmmkuIcyw sasSppI.  \mpw ssXIfpsS Nppw 1 hocyap t_mtUm an{inXw D]tbmKnpI.

  • ]qpe DWw

DWnb ]qpe DSs\ ampI.  s]]q cq]smepSs\ kns\_v (4 {Kmw/en shw) Asæn amtmsk_v (3 {Kmw/ en shw) Fnhbnsemv XfnbvpI, BhnpI.  50 ]n ]n Fw KmVXbn Hmdntbm^n tkm {]tbmKnpXpw tcmK\nb{Wn\v \XmWv. 

  • sNoscmenv  

10  - 15 hjw {]mbamb acfnemWv sNoscmenn\v IpSpX km[yX. acns NphSp `mKmWv tcmKeW {]XyamIpI.  tcmKw apOnptm XSnbnepWvSmIp hnffepIfn \npw {_u \ndnep Hcp Xcw {ZmhIw Dudn hcpp.

tXmnse \ohmm kuIcyw sasSpnbpw ss{SUvtam^v (15%) 125 ann thcneqsS \Inbpw tcmKw \nb{nbvmw. 

  • kqcymLmXw  

sXp]Snmd shbnen  \nv ASbvmacsf cntWvSXpWvSv. CXn\v ]\mf sImWvSv Xs XSn s]mXnpsImw, XSnbn sh ]qimw.  tXmns sXp`mKpw ]Snmdp `mKpw Dbcn hfcp XW ac \phfpI. 

  • ASbvm hnWvSpIod  

CXv Hcp tcmKa, ASbvmacns Hcp imcocnI sshIeyamWv 10-25 hjw {]mb]cn[nbnep acfnemWv CXn\v km[yX IqSpX. apm `mKw hnfhmb ASbv a\ndw hcpp.  ImbvI A{K `mKp hv hnWvSpIodpp.  {ItaW Ccw ImbvI s]mgnbpp.  an Cuns Afhv IqSpXpw IpdbpXpw Hcpt]mse tcmKtlXphmWv.

\ohm saampI, t_mdmIvkv 2 {Kmw 1 en shůn Ien XfnpI Fnh tcmK\nb{W hn[nIfmWv. 

  • ASbvm s]mfnbv b{w

ImktImUv kn ]n kn B sF eLphmb Hcp ASbvm s]mfnb b{w hnIknnnpWvSv.  Cu ASbvm s]mfnbv b{w hnIknnnpWvSv.  Cu b{ap]tbmKnv 60 In {Kmw DWnb ASbvbpw 30 In.{Kmw ] ASbvbpw s]mfnm Ignbpw 250 cp]bmWv b{ns hne.


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