Xncnv

     Gew

 

Fetäcnb ImÀUtamaw

     Ge¯nsâ apJyhmk Øew ]Ýna LSvS \ncIfnse \nXylcnX h\§fmWv. hmÀjnI hÀj]mXw 1500-4000 anÃnaoädpw Dujva ]cn[n 10-35 Un{Kn skânt{KUpw kap{Z \nc¸n \npÅ Dbcw 600-1200 aoädpw Bbncn¡Ww.

s]mSvSmkyhpw t^mkv^dkpw thWvSpthmfapÅ h\a®nemWv Gew km[mcWbmbn hfÀ¯pXv. \à \oÀhmÀ¨bpw XmgvNbpw LS\bpw ssPhhf¡qdpapÅ a®n Gew \mbn hfcpw.

  • C\§Ä

sF.kn.BÀ.sF-1

sF.kn.BÀ.sF-2

]n.hn. - 1

]n.hn. - 2

  • Irjn C\§Ä

ae_mÀ : 600 apX 1200 aoäÀ hsc DbcapÅ Øe§Ä¡p tbmPn¨Xv.
ssakqÀ
: 900 apX 1200 aoäÀ hsc DbcapÅ Øe§Ä¡p tbmPn¨Xv.
hgp¡ :
900 apX 1200 aoäÀ hsc DbcapÅ Øe§Ä¡p tbmPn¨Xv.

  • hwihÀ[\

ssX \SvSmWv Ge¯n hwihÀ[\ \S¯pXv. aqSvSp apfIÄ hfÀnSvSpÅ `qIm§fpw \Soen\p]tbmKn¡mdpWvSv. ssX \SvSp hfÀ¯p sNSntb¡mÄ thK¯n hnfhp XcpXv, `qImw \SvSp hfÀ¯p ssXIfmWv. Fm sshdkv \nan¯w ]Icp 'Isä' tcmKw ]Scm³ Cu \So coXn ImcWamIpp F tZmjhpapWvSv. AXn\m tcmK km[yXbpÅ Øe§fn `qIm§Ä¡p ]Icw, ssXIÄ \SvSp Xs Ge¡rjn \S¯pIbmWv A`nImayw.

  • \gvkdn

\Sm\pt±in¡p C\¯nsâ hnfª ImbvIÄ sk]väw_À - HIvtäm_dn tiJcn¡Ww. CXn \nv hn¯pIÄ sasà AaÀ¯n ]pds¯Sp¡Ww. hn¯nsâ A¦pcW tijn hÀ[n¸n¡m³, KmVkÄ^yqcnIv BknUntem ss\{SnIv BknUntem 2 an\nSvSne[nIaÃm¯ kabw ]pcSvSn FSp¡mw. FnSvSv Ch IpdªXv \mep XhWsb¦nepw XWp¯ shůn IgpIn, hn¯ns\ s]mXnªncn¡p BhcWw \o¡w sN¿Ww. hn¯pIÄ FnSvSv tXmcm³ h¨v Aev]w Nmchpambn IeÀ¯n XWen 2-3 Znhkw DW¡pI. cWvSmgvNbv¡Iw hn¯v RmäSnbn ]mIWw. DbÀ apfbv¡Â \nc¡n\v, sk]väw_À amkw ]mIpIbmWv \ÃXv. Fm sX¡p-]Snªmd³ ImehÀj¡me¯pw aªpamk§fnepw hn¯p ]mIpXv Hgnhm¡Ww. hn¯v kw`cn¨p hbvt¡WvS kµÀ`§Ä hcpt¼mÄ, Ahsb ImtbmSp IqSn¯s kq£n¨p hbv¡Ww. apfbv¡Â tijnbv¡v bmsXmcp XIcmdpw hcmsX Hcp amk¡mew hsc C¯c¯n kw`cn¡mw. t]mfn¯o³ BhcWapÅ Nm¡pIÄ CXn\mbn D]tbmKn¡mw.

tIcf¯nepw Xangv\mSvSnepw 18 amkw {]mbapÅ ssXIfmWv \Sm\p]tbmKn¡pXv. hn¯v BZyw {]mYanI \gvkdnbn ]mIn ssXIfmIpt¼mtg¡pw cWvSmw \gvkdnbnte¡v amän Hcp hÀjw hsc AhnsS \ne\nÀ¯pp. FnSvSp am{Xta {][m\ Irjn Øet¯¡v amäpIbpÅp.

  • Hmw \gvkdn

\oÀhmÀ¨bpÅ XpdÊmb ØeamWv \gvkdnsbmcp¡m³ \v. \\bv¡m³ kuIcyapWvSmbncn¡Ww. IrjnØew 30 sk.ao. Xmgv¯n¡nf¨v IÃpw ISvSbpw XSvSn \nc¸m¡pI. 6*1*0.3 aoäÀ hen¸apÅ XS§Ä X¿mdm¡pI. \gvkdn XS¯n\p aosXbmbn Ipd¨p h\a®v Hcp t\cnb ]mfnbmbn hncnbv¡pI. XS¯n hn¯pIÄ hcnbmbn ]mIWw. Hcp NXpc{i aoäÀ hnkvXrXnbv¡v 10 {Kmw hn¯mWp thWvSXv. 6 NXpc{iaoäÀ hen¸apÅ \gvkdn XS¯n\v 60 {Kmw hn¯mWp thWvSn hcpI. hn¯p ]mInbnSvSv AXn\p aosX hfsc I\w Ipd¨v Hcp ]mfn t\À¯ a®v hnXdpI. DW§nb ]pÃp sImWvSv \gvkdn XS¯n ]pXbnSpIbpw shWw. t]m¯m{Kmkv (s{Kt\jy{ÌnIvä) F t]cn ssltd©v {]tZi§fn hfcp ]pÃmWv ]pXbnSm³ \v. 2 sk.ao. I\¯n thWw ]pX hbv¡m³. hn¯p ]mIn Ignªv, XS§Ä Znhkhpw cmhnsebpw sshIptchpw \\bv¡Ww. hn¯v apfbv¡m³ XpS§nbm ]pX amämw. C\n XWen\v ]´enSmw. \\bv¡Â, IfsbSp¸pw, kkykwc£Whpw Hs¡ sN¿Ww. Pq-Pqembn Hmw \gvkdnbnse ssXIÄ cWvSmw \gvkdnbnte¡v amän \Smw.

  • cWvSmw \gvkdn

IrjnØew Hcp¡n Ignªv 6*1*0.3 ao. hen¸¯n XS§sfmcp¡pI. DW§ns¸mSnª Imenhfw, acs¸mSn Fnh taÂa®pambn IqSvSn¡eÀ¯n XSsamcp¡pXv ssXIÄ iànbnepw thK¯nepw thtcmSm³ CSbm¡pw. Pq-Pqembn 25-30 sk.ao. AIew \ÂIn ssXIÄ Cf¡n \SpI. Cf¡n \SvSp Ignªv ]´enSWw. DW¡bne sImWvSv XS¯n ]pXbnSmw. th\ amk§fn \nc´cw \\bv¡pI, IfsbSp¡pI, hfw tNÀ¡pI, kky kwc£Ww \S¯pI ]pXbnSpI XpS§nbhsbms¡ bYmhn[n sN¿Ww. Cf¡n \SpXn\v Hcp amkw ap³]v ]´Â \o¡w sN¿Ww. ssXIÄ¡v IqSpX Nn\¸p s]mSvSpXn\mWnXv.

  • t]mfn_mKv \gvkdn

cWvSmw \gvkdnsbmcp¡m³ t]mfn_mKpIfpw D]tbmKn¡mw. C§s\bmIpt¼mÄ, hn¯pIÄ sk]väw_dn Hmw \gvkdnbn ]mInbnSvSv Unkw_À-P\phcnbn t]mfn_mKnte¡v amäWw. C¯cw ssXIÄ Pq-Pqembn \Sm³ X¿mdmIpw. ChnsS \gvkdnImew 6-7 amkw IWvSv Ipdbv¡m³ km[nbv¡pw.

  • `qImw hgn hwihÀ[\

amÀ¨v BZy BgvN apX HIvtäm_À BZy ]IpXn hsc `qImw FSp¡mw. sNdnb NcnhpÅ XpdÊmb \oÀhmÀ¨m kuIcyapÅ ØeamWv Irjnbvs¡Spt¡WvSXv. \\bv¡m\pÅ kuIcyhpw DWvSmIWw. 45 sk.ao. hoXnbpw 45 sk.ao. XmgvNbpw kuIcy {]Zamb \ofhpw DÅ IpgnIÄ Ncnhns\Xnsc 1.8 aoäÀ CShnSvSv FSp¡pI. CXn Xpeybfhn taÂa®pw aWepw NmWIs¸mSnbpw tNÀ¯p \ndbv¡pI. C\n tXmSvS¯n \nv AXypXv]mZ\ tijnbpw tcmK{]Xntcm[ tijnbpapÅ Hcp amXrkkyw Cf¡nsbSp¡pI. thcpIÄ apdn¨p \o¡n IpIÄ thÀs¸Sp¯pI. Hmtcm Inepw Hcp Cfw hfÀ¨mImWvVapWvSmbncn¡Ww. Chsb 1.80 ao. * 0.60 ao. AIe¯nÂ, t\cs¯ X¿mdm¡nb IpgnIfn \SpI. thWvS{X ]pX \ÂIpIbpw Xm§p \ÂIpIbpw thWw. \gvkdnIÄ¡p \ÂInbXp t]mse ]´enSvSp sImSp¡pI. ag XpS§pt¼mÄ ]´Â amäpI. cWvSmgvNbnsemcn¡Â \\bv¡pIbpw kkykwc£W apdIÄ kzoIcnbv¡pIbpw thWw. 100:50:200 In.{Kmw/slIvSÀ F tXmXn ss\{SP³; t^mkv^dkv, s]mSvSmjv Fo cmkhf§Ä cWvSp amkw hoXw CShnSvSv Bdp XhWIfmbn \ÂIpI. ChtbmsSm¸w Hcp sNSn¡v 100-150 {Kmw th¸n³ ]n®m¡pw tNÀ¡mw. icmicn IW¡\pkcn¨v \SvSv Hcp hÀj¯n\pÅn Hä¯S¯n \nv 20-30 ]pXnb IpIÄ hsc hfÀ¯nsbSp¡m³ Ignbpw. ChnsS Hcp Imcyw {]tXyIw {i²n¡Ww - amXrkky§Ä sXcsªSp¯v tiJcn¡p tXmSvSw 'IsätcmK¯n" \nv ]qÀ®ambpw hnapàambncn¡Ww.

  • \gvkdnbnse a®p ]cnNcWw

Hpw cWvSpw RmäSnIfnse a®v 2% t^mÀaen³ Hgn¨v IpXnÀ¯nSvSv aqp Znhkw t]mfn¯o³ joäp sImWvSv aqSnbnSWw. CXp Ignªm 15 Znhkw Ignªp am{Xta ChnsS \So ]mSpÅp.

  • \gvkdnbnse kkykwc£Ww

  • amW¸pgp (t{]mUntbmIvsSkv loamän¡kv)

cWvSmw \gvkdnbnse Hcp {][m\ IoSw. ]pgp, amWw Xpf¨v DÄ`mKw Xnp hfcpp. amWw AgpIn \in¡pIbpw sNSn hmSnbpW§pIbpw sN¿pp. \gvkdn XSw t¢mÀss]dnt^mkv (0.04%) sImWvSv IpXnÀ¡pXv IoS\nb{´W¯n\v D]Icn¡pw.

  • XWvSo¨ (t^mÀtamkn\ ^vtfhns¸Uv)

P\phcn apX tabv hsc \gvkdnbn Cu¨sb ImWmw. \Sp\m¼v hmSnbgpIpXv D]{Zhe£Ww. Izn\mÂt^mkv (0.25%) Xfnbv¡pItbm Asæn t^mtdäv XcnIÄ Hcp NXpc{iaoädn\v Hcp {Kmw F tXmXn {]tbmKn¡pItbm thWw.

  • XWvSpXpc¸³ (tImt\msK¯nkv ]Mväns^dmenkv)

]pgp XWvSpXpcv DÄ`mKw `£n¡pp. \Sp\m¼v AgpIpp. kpjnc§fn \nv ]pgphnsâ hnkÀÖyw ]pdt¯¡p hcpXp ImWmw. Izn\mÂt^mkv (0.025%), ImÀ_mdn (0.1%), tamtWmt{ImtSvSmt^mkv (0.05%), s^³Xtbm (0.05%), ssUsat¯mtbäv (0.05%), F³tUmkÄ^n³ (0.1%), s^³sXmtbäv (0.1%)  Chbn GsX¦nepw Hv \nÝnX hocy¯n {]tbmKn¡pI.

  • \namhncIÄ

Gew \gvkdnIfnse Hcp apJyi{XphmWv \namhncIÄ. Ges¨SnbpsS thcpIÄ {][m\ambpw D]{Zhn¡pXv "saetUmssK³ C³sImánä" F \namhncbmWv. "{]mssäse³Ikv" Fp t]cmb \namhncbpw ImWmdpWvSv. thcnsâ A{K`mK§fn apgIÄ {]Xy£amIpI, AanXamb inJc hfÀ¨, apcSn¨ hfÀ¨, aªfn¸v, CebpW¡w, \nbX cq]anÃm¯ CeIfpsS DXv]mZ\w FnhbmWv \namhnc _m[bpsS apJye£W§Ä.

aossX t{_mssaUv D]tbmKn¨v \gvkdn¯S§Ä ]pIbv¡pXv \v. CXn\v 10 NXpc{i aoäÀ hnkvXrXnbv¡v 500 {Kmw aossX t{_mssaUv thWw. C§s\ sN¿p Øew t]mfn¯o³ joäv sImWvSv 2-3 Znhkw aqSnbnSWw. IoS_m[bpWvSv Fp kwibapÅ thcpIfpsS A{K`mKw \Soen\p ap³]pXs apdn¨p amäpIbpamhmw.

\gvkdnbnse ssXIsf apf¨v 10 Znhkw Ignbpt¼mÄ ImÀt_m^yqdm³ (Hcp slIvSdn\v 5 In.{Kmw F tXmXn {]tbmKn¨p ]cnNcn¡pI. CXv 3 amkw Ignbpt¼mÄ hoWvSpw BhÀ¯n¡Ww. cWvSmw \gvkcnbn ssXIÄ Cf¡n \SvSp Ignbpt¼mÄ BWv ImÀt_m^yqdm³ slIvSdn\v 10 In.{Kmw F tXmXn {]tbmKnt¡WvSXv. CXpw aqp amkw Ignbpt¼mÄ BhÀ¯nt¡WvSXpWvSv.

  • hmSÂ tcmKw

]n¯nbw shIvk³kv, ssdkIvtSmWnb skmfm\n Fo IpanfpIfmWv tcmKtlXp. XWvSpw thcpw IqSnt¨cp `mK¯mWv BZyw tcmKe£Ww ImWpI. tXmSvS¯nse \oÀhmÀ¨m kuIcyw sa¨s¸Sp¯nbpw 1% t_mÀtUm an{inXtam 0.2% tIm¸À HmIvknt¢mssdtUm D]tbmKn¨v a®p IpXnÀ¡pItbm sNSnIfn Xfnbv¡pItbm Bhmw