Xncnv

 ssIXbpsS a[pcscpa


         sImXnnp kzmZpw a\w abp kpKhpw
- appIġpn Hcp henb a[pchncpp Xs Hfnphncnp ssIXbpsS cWvSp {][m\ taIfmWXv. tIcfn hfsc hjfmbn  ssIX IrjnbpWvSv. tImbpw Xriqcpw ]cnkc {]tZifnepw ]p\eqcpw Cu\qmWvSns XpSn s ssIXIrjnbpXmbn tcJIfpWvSv. Fm FdWmIpfw Pnbnse hmgIpfmWv ssIX Irjn Ctm hmWnPymSnm\n hym]IambnpXv. ChnsS ]mSpw ]dnepw sXmSnbnepw tXmnepw Hs ssIX IrjnbpWvSv. Hcp]t Cybnse Ghpw henb ssIX hn]Wn Fpw hmgIpfs hntijnnmw. Fmbmepw GXmWvSv Aqdp sImw {]Npc{]Nmcw t\Snbncnpp. 

  • kzmZqdpw C\   

         Iyp, Izo, audojykv Fns\ apv C\fmWv \psS \mn {]NmcnepXv. CXn Xs Iyphpw audojykpamWv {][m\w. Iyp C\hpw audojykpw Xn NnehyXymkfpWvSv. apnm C\amWv Iyp. AXpsImWvSpXs CXv ASpnv \Smw. slIvSdn 42,000 hsc. ImbvIġv 2 apX 3 Intem hsc `mchpapWvSv. ]gn\v kzmZp IpdhmWv. Imns \ndw Cfwa. ImbvI thKw tISmIpw. Iyp \v 20 - 24 amkw Ignt hnfshSpm ]pIbpp.

           Fm audojykmIs, Ip \v 10 - 12 amkw sImWvSv hnfshSpmw. Cebn appIfpXn\m AIn \tSWvSnhcpw. ImbvIġv 1-2 Intem{Kmta Xqapp. ISpw a\ndamWv Imn\v. \ kzmZpapWvSv. Iyphnt\m IqSpX \m (cWvSmgvN hsc) ]gw tISmImsX kqnmw. Zpcefntebvv Ibn Abm\pw CXpaamWv. Cu C\n\v 'Imc' sbpw t]cpWvSv. ]gn\v tImWn BIrXnbmWv . AXpsImWvSv CXv Iym\nv, b{hXvIrX kwkvIcWw Fnhbvv tbmPnX. Fm \ a[pchpw aWhpapXn\m ioXf]m\ob IhSmpw ]gSIġpsams Cu C\tmSv {]nbw IqSpXemWv. 

  • \So hkvXp, \SoImew 

        sNSnbpsS Nphnse CeI XWvSpambn tNcp `mKp\np s]mngp hcp IpIfmWv Cv hym]Iambn \Sm\p]tbmKnpXv. NbpsS apIfp ImWp aIpSw, NbpsS sXmpXmsg aIpShpambp knbn \np hfphcp sNdnb IpI (npI) Fnhbpw D]tbmKnmw  

       \Sm\p]tbmKnp IpIġv  500 {Kman\pw Hcp Intem{Kman\pw CSbvv XpapWvSmbncnWw.Cs\ tiJcn IpI \SpXn\p apmbn HcmgvN XWen DWWw ]noSv Ins Xmgs ctWvSm aqtm DWnb CeI Cfnamn hoWvSpw HcmgvNIpSn XWev DWWw. \SpXn\p apv Hcp iXam\w hocyap t_mtUm an{inXn apnsbSppXv \XmWv.

       tIcfn sabv - Pq amkfmWv ssIX \Sm ]nb kabw. Imehjw I\pIgnv Ip \SpXv \. ]pXpXmbn \ IpI AgpIn t]mIm\nSbpWvSv. ag XpSngnbptmtgbvpw IpI Hcphn[w thtcmSnIgnncnWw. 

  • Cs\ \Smw  

         Imehjn\papmbn Inp HtmctWvSm agtbmSpIqSn Irjnew \mbn DgpXpadnpI. hoXnbp NmepI IodpIbmWv ASp]Sn. 90 sk.ao hoXnbnepw 15 apX 30 hsc sk. ao Bgnepw kuIcy{]Zamb \ofnepw NmepI DWvSmmw. ASpSp cWvSp NmepIfpsS a[y_np Xn 165 sk ao AIew DWvSmbncnWw FmWv \njvIj.      

       Xmdmnb HmtcmNmenepw cWvSp hcnbmbnmWv IpI \tSWvSXv. hcnI Xn 70 sk. aodpw hcnbnse sNSnI Xn 30 sk aodpw AIew \IWw. IpI 7.5 apX 10 sk. ao hsc BgnemWp \tSWvSXv. Cs\ \Sptm Ins CeIġnSbnepw \Spmnepw aphogmsX {inWw. 

       NmepIfn {XntImWcoXnbnep \SoemWv A`nImayw. AXmbXv Hcp Nmen Hcp hcnbnse sNSnIfpsS a[yn\v kamcambmWv at hcnbnse  sNSnIfpsS m\w htcWvSXv. Hmtcm sNSnpw ]camh[n kqcy{]Imihpw ap hfmkuIcyfpw  e`nm CXp klmbnpp. Cu coXnbn Ip\Sptm Hcp slIvSdn 40404 sNSnI DWvSmbncnpw ssIX, sXn tXmn CShnfbmbpw hfmw      

  • hf{]tbmKw A\nhmcyw   

        imkv{Xob hf{]tbmKw ssIXbvv hfsc CjvSamWv. slIvSdn\v 25 S F tXmXn Imenhftam Itmtm \new Hcpm DgpXnt\msSmw DgpXp tNncnWw. IqSmsX sNSnsbmn\v 4 {Kmw t^mkv^dkv (20 {Kmw kpt^mkvt^v/ akqdn/ cmPv t^mkv) tNWw. ASnhfn\p ]pdta Fp{Kmw ss\{SP (20 {Kmw bqdnb), Fp {Kmw s]mmjv (15 {Kmw ayqdntbv Hm^v s]mmjv) Fn cmkhffpw Hcp sNSnpta hfambn \IWw. Ip \v 2-3 amkw CShnv aqv XhWbmbn CXv \Inbm aXn. cmkhfanSptm {]tXyIw {inWw. Afhpw kabhpw sXm ]mSn. As\ kw`hnm ssIXbvv ]e tcmKfpw ]nSns]Spw. ImbvI s]sp ]gppIbpw NobpIbpw  sNpw. 

  • \\m hnfthdpw  

        ssIXbvv \\ ]cnanXamtb thWvSp. Fm th\¡v 2-3 BgvN hnv sNdpXmbn \\psImSpm hnfhp IqSpw. ssIXSn ]pXbnSpXpw \XmWv.  

  • If\o 

        hmWnPymSnm\n ssIX hfptm If\innemWv Hcp henb {]iv\w. Ip\v 2-3 BgvN Ignv 'Ubqtdm' F If\min\n Hcp Intem 600 en shůn F tXmXn Ien Xfnm If \nb{Ww km[yamIpw. Hcp slIvSdn\mWv Cu tXmXv. Ubqtdm e`yasæn 2.5 Intem s{_mamkn CtX coXnbn ssIXtmn Xfnmepw aXn. 

  • t^mtam {]tbmKw 

        sNSnI Htc kabw ]qhnSm\pw hnfbm\pw tlmtam {]tbmKw klmbnpw. Cv ssIXtmfn CXv km[mcWambncnpp.      

       sNSnI \ hfsbnbm (Ip \v 16-17 amkw Ignv 39-42 CeIfmIptm) tlmtam Hgnmw. C\ndbp coXnbn tlmtam Xmdmmw. 

       50 en shůn 1.25 ann Fnt^m, HcpIntem bqdnb, 20 {Kmw Imyw Im_tWv Fnh IepI. CXn \nv 50 ann hoXw FSpv Hmtcm sNSnbpsSbpw Ipn HgnpI. 1000 sNSnIsmgnphm 50 en tlmtam aXnbmIpw. 

       acpsmgnv 30-mw Znhkw ]qpe hcm XpSpw. 40 Znhkw sImWvSv apgph ]qhnSpw. Npcpn tlmtam {]tbmKw Ignv 145 Znhkw sImWvSv ImbI hnfshSpn\v XmdmIpw. hfphcp ImbvIsf shbnen \np cnm Hmetbm ]ptm sImWvSp XW \IWw. 

  • hnfshSpv XpScpp   

         BZys hnfshSpp Ignm ssIXbn \np cWvSp hnfI IqSn FSpmw. N aqptmįs sNSnbpsS ASnbn \np ]pXnb IpI hfphcpXp ImWmw. N ]dnptXmsS Ch IcptmsS hfp XpSpw. Atm hnfshSp sNSnbpsS Nphn \nv CeI Acnpamn Hmtcm sNSnbnepw cWvSp IpI hoXw \nn aph ampp. sNSnIġv Nppw aWv Ah Nmp hogmsX {inWw. BZyhnfbvp \Inb ]cnNcW Ipnhnfbvpw \IWw. 

  • ^v FbnUv

         ]ghfn hv IoS--tcmK_m[ ssIXbn Xqtemw IqdhmWv Fm Nne ieymcnmXn. 

  • aoen aq   

         ssIXbpsS thcn, IS, CeI, N Fnhbn aoenap ]nqSmdpWvSv. ap ]nb Nbvv hn]Wnbn Xosc hneInn. AXn\m Chsb bYmkabw  AIntb Xocp.

       aoenapbpsS D]{Zhw IWvSmepS Xs 0.025 iXam\w hocyn Izn\mt^mkv/0.05 iXam\w hocyn s^ntbm/ 0.05 iXam\w hocyn s^\nt{Smntbm Fnhbn GsXnepsamv Cebnepw sNSnbpsS ASn`mKpw XfnWw tXmn ImWp ]ppw ap IfIfpw, \innpIfbpIbmsWnepw aoenbpsS ieyw Ipdbvmw.  

  • IqpNob

         Ipan_m[bmWv IqpNoben\p ImcWw. CebpsS ASn`mKhpw Iqpw Noncnpw. henm Ce s]sv Ducntmcpw. 1 iXam\w hocyap t_mtUm an{inXw tcmK_m[nXamb sNSnphnse antemgnpI FXmWv tcmK\nb{W amw. IqSmsX tcmKap sNSnIsf X kabv IStbmsS ]dnp\innpIbpw thWw. tcmK_m[bnm efn \nv hkvXp tiJcnpIbmWv asmcp {][m\ Imcyw. 

  • Cepn 

         sNdnb ]pnppI CeIfn {]XysSpIbpw Ah {ItaW hepXmIpIbpw B `mKw DWntmIpIbpw sNpp. CepntcmKn\pw t_mtUm an{inXw Xs aXnbmIpw. 

  • ssIX Xotaibn

         ssIXbn \nv Am, Pmw, lh, kvIzmjv, Pyqkv, IymUn Fo a[pchn`h Xmdmmw. 

  • Pmw  

       ]gp ssIX -1 Intem, ]kmc --1 Intem, kn{SnIv BknUv -4 {Kmw, Bsæn sNdp\mcm \ocv -4 tS_n kv]q. 

       ssIX, sXmen sNn sNdnb IjWfmbn apdnv anIvknbneSnsSppI. CXn ]kmc tNv sNdpXobn \mbn  Cfn ]mIsSppI. Pmw ]cphamIptm kn{SnIv BkntUm \mc\otcm tNv Cfn ASpn \np amn, hrnbmnb Cuanm Ipnbn NqtSmsS \ndp kqnmw. 

  • kvIzmjv

   ssIX \ocv -1 Intem, ]kmc -1.25 Intem, kn{Snv BknUv -50{Kmw, s]mmkyw sam ss_ kt^v -700 ann{Kmw. 

      \mbn ]gp ssIX Xebpw sXmenbpw sNn IpI \opI. sNdnb IjWfmbn DSv CgbSpap XpWnbneqsS sRnngnv Nmdp apgph\pw FSppI. shhpw ]kmcbpw IqSn ASpp hv ]kmc ]qambpw shůn AenbpXphsc NqSmpI. Ahkm\w s]mmkyw sam ss_ kt^v Ipdp shůn AenbnptNpI. CXv NmdntesmgnnfpI. XWpp Ignv, IgpIn DWn hrnbmnb IpnIfn kvIzmjv ASp kqnmw.