Xncnv

     Idph
  • imkv{X\maw  : kntamaw 

kap{Z\ncn \nv 1800 ao hsc Dbcap efn Idph hfcpw.  Acon Cuv kmnyap DjvWtaJem Imemhbnepw \nXylcnX agmSpIfpsS Acow \ne\n¡p {]tZifpamWv CXn\njvSw.  \ohmbpw XmgvNbpap hfqdp aW an Idph hfcpw.  ISptadnb sNpw shspap NXppIfpamWv IdphbpsS ]YytSpI.  

  • C\        

        \h{io, \nXy{io, kpK\v[n\n 

  • hnpw hnXbpw     

        hnphgnbmWv Idphbn hwih\. hngshSpp IgnmepS Dbntmcnb XSfn hnp ]mIWw.  Bdpamkw {]mbamb ssXI, NnIfntep amWw.       

  •   \So

        \ ]\ndap CeWvSpItfmSpIqSnb ssXI thWw \Sm.  1-2 hjw {]mbap ssXI, sXp ]Snmd Imehjns hcthmsS {][m\ Irjn ep \Smw.  60*60 sk.ao henap IpgnIfn 2:2 ao AIen ssXI \SWw.  ssX \SpXn\p hfsc ap]p Xs IpgnI XmdmpIbpw \Soen\p ap]v Ah CesmSnbpw ta apw sImWvSv \ndbvpIbpw thWw. 

  • hf{]tbmKw      

         BZyhjw F.]n.sI Fnh 20:20:25 {Kmw/ssX F tXmXnepw cWvSmw hjw CXns Ccn Aehnepw \IpI.  Imenhftam Itmtm sNSnsbmn\v Hcp hjw 20 In.{Kmw Fbfhn tNWw.  ]p hjhpw AXn\ptaepw {]mbamb hrġv F.]n.sI A\p]mXw bYm{Iaw 200:180:200 {Kmw/ acw F tXmXnemn DbpIbpw thWw.

              ssPhhfw tabv--PqWnemWp \tIWvSXv.  cmkhffmIs tabv-Pq, sk]vw_--HIvtSm_ F amkfn cWvSp XpeybfhpIfmbpw \evIpp.    

    
CXc IrjnWnI

        hfbpsS BZyLfn IfsbSpp \SWw.  hcĨ \oWvSp\n¡psn thcv ]nSnnpXv hsc \\bvWw.  sNSnv 2-3 hjw hfbmIptm Xd\ncn \npw 15 sk.ao Dbcn hp sImpI apdnWw.  Nphn \npw hifntev hfcp inJc apdnpXv Hcp IpnsSnbpsS cq]w ssIhcm klmbnpw.         

  • hnfshSpp kwkvIcWw

        \v aqp hjw {]mbamb sNSn hnfshSpn\v XmdmIpw.  BZyhnfshSpv tabnepw cWvSmw hnfshSpv \hw_dnepamWv hnfshSppXv. Cu kabv ]pXnb imJI Xfncnv Cfw Nphp XfncpI aqsn ] \ndamIpw.  Cubhbn sNSnbpsS Id sXmennSbn IqSn \mbn {]hlnp sImWvSncnpXn\m sXmen thKw DcnsSpm Ignbpw.  1.5-2 ao. \ofhpw 2-2.5 sk.ao Npfhpap IpI cmhnse apdnsSpWw.  Ins ]pdsabp sXmen Aw hf {]tXyIXcw In sImWvSv NpcWvSn Ifbpw.  Fnv \ofn \SphneqsS ]bpsS Bgn apdnhpIfpWvSmIpw.  XpSv Inbp]tbmKnv ] tISv hcmsX ASnsbSpv Hcp cm{Xnbpw ]Iepw XWepWpp.  ]bpsS \ofa\pkcnv Ahsb ctWvSm aqtm Bbn XcwXncnpp.              

  • Hentbm sdkn (Idphkv)  

        Idph Nne Im_WnI embIfpsS klmbtmsS kwkvIcnptmgmWv Idph kv InpXv.  `W ]ZmXvYġv aWhpw KpWhpw hnnm CXv D]tbmKnpp.         

  • Idph ssXew

         Cfw a \ndap Idph ssXew ] \ocmhnbn hmnsbSpptmgmWv InpXv.  CXn 55% knamUnsslUv  ASnbncnpp.  CXn\p ]pdsa, bqPnt\m, bqPnss\ Aksv, otmWpI, FdpI, sS]n\pI Fnhbpw ASnbncnpp.  `W ]ZmXvYġv kzmZpw kpK\v[hpw \Im\pw kpK\v[{Zhy \nmW cwKpw Huj[ \nmW cwKpw ssXen\v D]tbmKapWvSv.     

  • Idph Cessew  

        Idph Bhnbn hmptmgmWv 0.5-0.7% ssXew InpXv.  CXn\v atbm {_u Ie atbm \ndambncnpw.  ISp kpK\v[amWnXn\v.  CXn 70-90% bqPnt\m BWv.  Fm knamUnsslUv 5% Xmsgbpp.  A \nmWcwKv CXn\p]tbmKapWvSv.        

  • Idph thcv ssXew

         IdphbpsS thcn 1.0-2.3% Iqcw ASnbncnpp.  IqSmsX knamUnsslUv, bqPnt\m Fnhbpw DWvSv.         

kky kwcWw

  • Cepnbpw sImpWhpw       

        sImfntm{Snw ntbmkvt]mdntbmbnUvkv F IpanfmWv tcmK tlXp. sNdnb ssXIfpsS CeIfn {_u ]pnI ZriyamIpp.  henb acfnepw tcmK eW ImWmw.  1% t_mtUman{inXw Xfnm tcmKw \nb{nmw.