Xncnv

   Iipamhv


imkv{X\maw
A\ImUnbw HmIvknsUt 

           DjvWtaJem {]tZiġv A\ptbmPyamb hmWnPy hnfbmWv Iipamhv.  aWap apX shpI ap hscbp {]tZifn kap{Z \ncn \nv 600-700 ao Dbctmfw CXv kpKaambn hfcpw.  hfqdv hfsc Ipd Xcnip efnepw hfcm Iipamhv XmdmWv. 

  • C\

C\w

icmicn hnfhv (In.{Kmw/acw/hjw)

]pjv]n kz`mhw

B\bw -1 (_n.F.F 139-1)

12.00

t\cs

amSd - 1 (_n.F.F 39-4)

13.80

t\cs

hrYmNew - 3 (Fw.26/2)

11.68

t\cs

I\I (Fv - 1598)

12.80

a[yImew

[\ (Fv - 1608)

10.66

a[yImew

sI-22-1

13.20

a[yImew

[c{io (Fv -3 - 17)

15.02

a[yImew

{]nb (Fv-1591)

16.90

a[yImew

AarX (Fv-1597)

18.35

a[yImew

A\ne (Fv. 8-1)

13.73

a[yImew

amSd-2(F.Un.B 2-1)

17.00

sshIn

kpe` (sI.10-2)

21.90

sshIn

ZmtamZ(Fv.1600)

13.36

a[yImew

cmLhv (Fv. 1610)

14.65

a[yImew

  • \So hkvXp

           ssXI \tm ]Xn htm HnsSptm Iipamhn hwih[\hv \Smw.  ]c]cmKWw \Sp hnfbmbXn\m ImbnI {]h[\neqsS hwih[\ \SpXmWv ]mccy kz`mhw icnbmbn ssIamdm \Xv.  hmbphn ]XnhsSpp ssXI XmcXtay\ Ipd hnPb iXam\amWv {]ISampXv FXn\m tkm^vv hpUv {Km^vpI BWv \Sm \v. 

           ssXI aptJ\bp hwih[\ 

  • amXrhrfpsS sXcsSpv 

C\n ]dbp kz`mhfp amXrhr thWw sXcsSpm. 

(1)                 anI hfbpw BtcmKyhpw [mcmfw inJcfpap hr. 

(2)                IqSpX Fw ZznenwK ]pjv]fpXv. 

(3)                15-25 hjw {]mb]cn[n 

(4)                CScw henhpw `mchpw D IiphWvSnI DXv]mZnnp kz`mhw icmicn hnfhv Hcp acn\v Hcp hjw 15 In.{Kmw AWvSn. 

(5)                Hcp Ipebn 7 apX 8 AWvSn hsc ]nSnbvp kz`mhw. 

  • IiphWvSn - sXcsSpv   

         s^{_phcn amkw sXcsSpp amXr hrfn \npw amv - G{]nenemWv hnWvSn tiJcntWvSXv.  \mbn aq, CScw henap hnWvSn shůnenSpI.  Xmgvp t]mIpXv FSpv ctWvSm aqtm Znhkw shbnepWnsbSppI.   

  • ssXI

          tabvamktmsS t]mfno knIfn ssXI hfm XpSmw.  20 sk.ao * 15 sk.ao. henap knIfmWv \v.  knbn apIĸcn \nv 1-1.5 sk.ao. Xmgvn taap \ndbvpI.  hnWvSn \Soen\v ap]v 18-24 aWnq t\cw shůn IpXncm\nSpXv apfbv kpKaampw.  Cs\ IpXnsSp hnWvSn, ap \nd t]mfno knbn sRv apIfnemn 2-3 sk.ao Xmgvn \SpI.  7-10 Znhkw sImWvSv CXp apfbvpw. 

  • hmbphn ]Xnhv hwih[\ (Fb sebdnv)

          s^{_qhcn-amv amktmsS thWw Ccw ]XnI Xmdmm,  As\sbn Ah Pq-Pqembv BIptXmsS \Soen\p XmdmIpw.  9-12 amkw aqsnb s]kn I\ap A{KinJc sXcsSppI.  aqbp Hcp In D]tbmKnv 0.6-1.2 sk.ao I\n inJcn \nv ]pdw sXmen Hcp hfbamn apdnp ampI.  Cs\ sXmen amnb `mKw \\ ]mbtem aWtem acsmSntbm sImWvSp s]mXnv 150-200 tKPv I\ap t]mfno IWw sImWvSv sIpI.  CXns cWvS{Khpw NW\mcp sImWvSv sIpI.  40-60 Znhkw sImWvSv CXn thcpI ]pdsSpXp ImWmw.  Ctm ]XnbpsS NphSp`mKv V BIrXnbn apdnhpWvSmpI.  15 Znhkw Ignbptm apdnhv Aev]w IqsS BgnempI. 7 Znhkw IqsS Ignv apdnhv ]qamn thcp ]nSn ]Xn thsSpnsbSpmw.  thsSpn FSp ]Xn Atm Xs 15*15 sk.ao henap Nnbn \SWw.  XpSv CXv XWep hbvWw.  sXp-]Snmd Imehjw hcptXmsS Xmdmnb Ipgnbn ssX \Smw.  Cfw ssXIġv XW \IpIbpw ]pXbnSpIbpw thWw. 

  •   Hp ssXIfneqsS hwih[\   

          Xfnscmn, arZpImWvUsamn, sh\o Hn, hiw tNsmn, ]mfnapIpf\w Fns\ hnhn[ ImbnI {]h[\ coXnI DWvsSnepw Iipamhns hmWnPy]camb h[\hn\v Ghpw \Xv arZpImWvUsamn BWv Fp IWvSncnbvpp. 

arZpImWvUsamn (tkm^vv hpUv {Km^vnMv)

  • hnWvSn - sXcsSpv

    1. ]camh[n hnfhp Inp s^{_phcn - amv amkfn thWw hnWvSn tiJcnbvm.  CXv 2-3 Znhkw shbnepWWw. 

    2. shůntem 10% hocyap Dpshůntem apn thWw anI hnWvSn IWvsSm.  Xmgp hnWvSn D]tbmKnmw. 

    3. 7-9 {Kmw hsc `mchpw CScw henhpap AWvSnbmWv ]noSp ssX hfbvp \v.   

  • dqv kvtmv (aqe ImWvUw) Xmdm

    1. ]pXnb IiphWvSn thWw, dqv tmv Xmdmm D]tbmKntWvSXv.  Hcp hjntesdmew kw`cnp hncp IiphWvSn CXn\mbn D]tbmKncpXv.

    2. \SpXn\p Xtem cm{Xn apgph hnWvSn shůn IpXnp hbvWw. 

    3. t]mnMv an{inXw \ndbvm 25 sk.ao. * 15 sk.ao. henhpw 300 tKPv I\hpap t]mfno kn D]tbmKnpI.

    4. \ohm Ddmm t]mfno knbn 16-20 kpjncanSpI.

    5. Nph apw F apw Itmpw 1:1:1 F A\p]mXn Ienb t]mnMv an{inXn 2 Intem {Kman\v 5 {Kmw F tXmXn tdmv t^mkvt^v IqsS tNsSppI. 

    6. knbpsS hp hsc t]mnMv an{inXw \ndbvpI. 

    7. shůn IpXnsSp hnWvSn knbpsS H \Sphn 2.0 apX 2.5 sk.ao hsc Xmgvn \SpI. 

    8. \bpS \\bvpI.  \\ XpScpI.  Fm A[nI \\ ]mSn. 

    9. agmev \v 15-20 Znhkw sImWvSpw th\Imev \v 8-10 Znhkw sImWvSpw hnp apfbvpw. 

    10. aqeImWvU kpe`ambn e`npXn\v Hmtcm BgvN CShnpw XpSbmbn hnWvSn ]mIpI. 

    11. ssXIfpsS CeIġv sNp \ndn \nv ] \ndamIpXp hsc, th\Imev XW \IWw. 

    12. apfv 50-60 Znhkw Ignbptm ssXI Hnbven\p XmdmIpw. 

    13. apfp hcp hnWvSnIsf Am, ]nI Fnhbn \np cnbvpI. 

    14. agmeamIptm ssX Nob km[mcWamIpw.  CXv \nb{nm 1% hocyap t_mtUm an{inXw XfnbvpItbm an Hgnp IpXnpItbm thWw.   

  • aqeImWvUw sXcsSp

          t]mfno knbpsS a[y`mKp \nv 50-60 Znhks hfbp HWvSmbn hfcp Icpp ssXIfmWv aqeImWvUambn D]tbmKnm \v.

  • HpssX sXcsSp

  1. Iipamhns AXypXv]mZ\tijnbp Hcp C\w amXrhrambn sXcsSppI.  CXn \nv Bhiyn\v ssXI tiJcnm Ignbpw. 

  2. 3-5 amks hfbpXpw ]pjv]nmXpamb ]pXnb ]mizinJc sXcsSppI. 

  3. sXcsSpp HpssXbvv 10-12 sk.ao \ofhpw s]kn I\hpw {_u \ndhpw \nhp hfcp kz`mhhpw DWvSmbncnWw. 

  4. inJcns A{K`mKp 4-5 CeIġv ISp ]\ndapWvSmbncnpXv, icnbmbn aqsnbXns eWambn IcpXmw.   

  • HpssX Hcp

    1. sXcsSp HpssXI apIįen \np apm `mKtmfw CeI \pnfbpI. 

    2. CeI \on 7-10 Zohkw Ignbptm ssX, Hnen\p XmdmIpw.

  • HpssX tiJcn

    1.  Hnen\p Xmdmb ssXI AXncmhnse thWw apdnsSpm

    2.  ]pXnb A{KapIpf apfs]mpXn\p ap]p Xs HpssX apdnsSpWw.   

    3. amXrhrn \np apdnsSpmepS Xs HpssX \\ XpWnbn s]mXnv t]mfno knbnempI.  DSs\ Ah HnbvpXn\mbn \gvkdnbn FnpI.  AXymhiysan Ah 3-4 Znhkw kw`cnXn\p tijhpw Hnen\p]tbmKnmw.        

  • aqeImWvUw Xmdm

    1. aqeImWvUns NphSp `mKp cWvSp tPmUn CeI \ow sNpI. 

    2. {][m\ ImWvUn a\ncn\p 15 sk.ao apIfn hv IpdpsI Hcp apdnhv DWvSmpI.

    3. XWvSns a[y`mKmbn 4-5 sk.aod XmgvNbn \ofn Hcp apdnhpWvSmpI.   

  • HpssX Xmdm

    1. aqeImWvUn\p tNcp Hcp HpssX sXcsSppI. 

    2. HpssXpsS apdn`mKw Hcp Bns BIrXnbn sNnsbmcppI.   

  • Hnbv

    1. HpssXpsS apdn`mKw aqeImWvUnepWvSmnb apdnhntev ISpI. Ch ]ckv]cw \mbn tNncnm {inbvWw

    2. Hn kn 1.5 sk.ao hoXnbpw 30 sk.ao \ofhpap Hcp t]mfno \mS sImWvSv _eambn sIpI. 

    3. HpssX \\hp Hcp t]mfno kn sImWvSv s]mXnv, \\hv \ne\nm\pw A{KapIpfw DWntmmXncnm\pw {inpI. 

    4. HpssX 10-15 Znhkw XWev kqnWw. 

    5. Cu Imebfhv Ignbptm t]mfno kn ampIbpw HpssX {][m\ Irjnetv FSppIbpw sNmw.  Hnbv hnPbIcambn \ ssXI 3-4 BgvNbvpn hfcm XpSpw. 

    6. Hnbv \Sn 5-6 amkw Ignbptm HpssXI \Soen\v XmdmIpw. 

    7. tIcfnse Imemhbn amv apX sk]vw_ hscbp ImeLamWv arZpImWvUw Hnbven\v Ghpw A\ptbmPyamb kabw.  

  • \gvkdnbnse kwcWw 

    1. Hcp ]qhmfntbm ssat{Im-kv{]nvftdm D]tbmKnv HpssXI ncambn \\bvWw.

    2. aqeImWvUn \np apfbvp ]pXpapfI bYmkabw \ow sNWw. 

    3. HpssXI, ]qpeI DXv]mZnppshn Ah Atm \oWw. 

    4. thcv an Ddpt]mImXncnm HpssXI CSbvnSbvv HcnSp \nv asmcnStv amn hbvWw. 

    5. \ocqnpSnbvp {]mWnIfpsS ieyw Hgnhmm IoS\min\nI XfnbvpXp \XmWv.   

  • t]mfnluknse HpssX DXv]mZ\w

          arZpImWvU {Km^vpIfpsS hnPbiXam\w 60-70% BWv.  hjImev Cu \ncv h[nbvpw.  20 ao \ofhpw 6 ao hoXnbpw D sNehpIpd t]mfnlukpI CXn\v \nnWw.  ImmSngtbm apftbm IapIn ]tbm ]n.]n.kn.ss]tm Hs CXns \nnXnbvp]tbmKnmw.  t]mfnlukn\v a[y`mKmbn 2.5 ao Dbchpw Ccphipambn Hcp ao hoXnbpw DWvSmhWw.  Hcp tlmkp]tbmKnv ssXI \\bvmw.  shw kqva IWnIIfmbn ]Xnbvp annMv bqWnpI m]nbvpIbpamhmw.  annMv bqWnp]tbmKnppshn cmhnse 10 aWnbvpw sshIptcw 6 aWnpw CSbvmbn cWvSp aWnq hoXw CShnv Znhkhpw 5-10 an\np t\cw shw kvt{] sNmw.  CtX t]mfnlukn\pn hp Xs aqeImWvfpsS DXv]mZ\hpw Hnbvepw \SpIbpw sNmw.  I\ agmev ssXIġv thWvS{X kwcWw \Ipw F A[nIta IqsS t]mfnlukpIġpWvSv.  th\ I\ptm CtX t]mfnlukpI Xs 30-35% XW \Ip XW heI sImWvSv aqSn D]tbmKnmw.   

  • HpssXIfpsS \Soepw ]cnNcWhpw 

             Hnp Ign ssXI 5-6 amkw Ignbptm \Soen\p XmdmIpw.  \Sm\p IpgnI ta apw 5-10 In.{Kmw Itmtm NmWIsmSntbm tNv \ndbvpI.  ssXI t]mfno knbn \nv {im]qw Cfn \SpI.  Cs\ \Sptm Hp kn a\ncn\v 2.5 sk.ao apIfnembncnWw.  \ ssXbvv Xmp \Im adcpXv. 

  • tXmfpsS ]cn]me\w

             ssXI, ]XnI, HpssXI Fnh {][m\ Irjnev 50 * 50 sk.ao henap IpgnIfn Pq-Pqembv amktmsS \SWw. 

           hfqdp Ipd an ssXI Xn 7.5 ao CSbIehpw hf]pjvSnbp anepw Xoc{]tZifnepw 10 ao AIehpw \IWw.  Ncn efn sNSnI Xn 6-8 ao AIehpw hcnI Xn 10-15 ao AIehpamWv thWvSXv.  tXmn Ifieyw ImWppshn BKv - sk]vw_dn If\ioIcWw \SWw.  CfwssXIġv kqcymLmXw G¡mXncnm sNSnphn ]pXbnSpIbpw thWw. 

           If\min\nI D]tbmKnpw If\ioIcw \Smw.  Pqembv apX Hmtcm amkw CShnv ]mcmIzm F If\min\n 0.4 In.{Kmw/slIvS F tXmXn aqp {]mhiyw {]tbmKnWw.  Asæn sst^mtkv F If\min\n slIvSdn\v 0.8 In.{Kmw F tXmXn Pq-Pqembn Hcp XhW Xfnmepw aXn.  Umetm F If\min\n 3.0 In.{Kmw/slIvS F tXmXn Pq-Pqembn {]tbmKnnv cWvSmgvNbvp tijw ]mcmIzmv 0.4 In.{Kmw/slIvS F tXmXn {]tbmKnpXpw ^ehmbn IWvSnpWvSv.   

  • {]mYanI sImp tImX    

            \v BZyhjw HpssXpsS aqeImWvU`mKp \np hcp apfI bYmkabw \ow sNWw.  BZys 3-4 hjmew Cs\ sNpXpw AXymhiyw sImp tImXpXpw acn\v icnbmb cq]`wKn ssIhcm klmbnpw.  AXn\ptijw Imcyamb sImp tImXens Bhiyw hcpIbn.  Xd\ncn \nv sNSnbvv HSnbmbn 0.75-1.00 ao hsc Dbcn hfcm A\phZnWw.  sNSn cWvSmw hjw hfp XpSptm apX D ]miz inJc \ow sNpXneqsS CXv km[npw.  Icpp Ipd, IpdpsI hfcp inJcfpw \oWw.  inbmb Imv adnp t]mImXncnm BZyhjw sNSnbvv Xmp \IWw.  ac icnbmbn sImp tImXn hfpXv XpXncn, If\ioIcWw, hf{]tbmKw, hnWvSn tiJcWw, kky kwcWw XpSnb CXc IrjnWnIġv Gsd klmbIcambncnpw.  BZys cWvSp hjmew HpssXn \npWvSmIp ]qpeI \oWw.  aqmw hjw apX¡p am{Xta ssX ]qm\pw Imbvm\pw A\phZnmhq. 

  • s]mXphmb sImptImX 

          {]mbw sN Iipamhp tXmfn DWnbXpw \nohhpamb inJc, IpdpsI sRcpn hfcp inJc Fnh Ghpw IpdXv cWvtSm aqtm hjw IqSptm \ow sNWw.  acns IcptmsSbp hfbvpw Fm inJcfnepw thWvS{X kqcy{]Imiw Inm\pw CXp klmbnbvpw.  tabv/Pq amkfnemWv km[mcWbmbn Iipamhn sImptImX \SpXv.   

  • hf{]tbmKw

          Hcp hjw Hcp acn\v 750 {Kmw ss\{SP, 325 {Kmw t^mkv^dkv, 750 {Kmw s]mmjv FnhbmWv Iipamhn\v ip]mi sNbvXncnp cmkhf.  BZyhjw Ignbptm CXns 1/5 `mKhpw cWvSmwhjw 2/5 `mKhpw \IWw.  Amwhjw apX apgph Afhv hfhpw \Imw.  acn\p Nppw 0.5 apX 3 ao hoXnbn hfw hnXdnbnv 15 sk.ao XmgvNbn Cfntm aXn.   

  • CShnfI

          hfbpsS BZyLfn Iipamhn tXmnse Ghpw em`Icamb CShnfbmWv ssIX.  cWvSp hcn Iipamhn\nSbvv Ncnhns\Xnsc FSpp IpgnIfn CXp \Smw.  hcnIġnSbvv 60 sk.ao AIenepw IpI Xn 40 sk.aodpw AIew \In Iv \SWw.  Cn, Cnpv, aco\n Fnhbpw A\ptbmPyamb CShnfIfmWv.   

  • A[nI km{Xm Irjn 

         Iipamhn tXmfpsS DXv]mZ\ aX h[nnpXn\v kzoIcnmhp Hcp B[p\nI Irjn ktXamWv A[nI km{Xm Irjn.  bqWnv ev IqSpX HpssXI \SpIbpw ]noSv Ah Fw IpdbvpXn\v ]ngpXp ampIbpw sNmw.  km[mcW KXnbn NXpc k{Zmbn \Sptm Hcp slIvSdn 64 apX 177 ssXIfpw {XntImW k{Zmbn \Sptm 74 apX 204 ssXIfpw BWv hcmdv.  Fm A[nI km{Xm Irjnbn 312 apX 625 ssXI hsc Hcp slIvSdn \Spp.  ]noSv ssXI hfcptm, sNSnIfpsS Fw ]ngpXpamn {IaoIcnWw. 

           A[nI km{Xm Irjn k{Zmbn HpssXI 4 * 4 Asæn 8 * 4 ao AIen \SWw.  As\bmbm 625 apX 312 hsc ssXI \Smw.  sNSn hfcpXv t\mn Cu Fw H]tXm ]tm hjw hsc \ne\nmw.  hfqdq an sNSn \mbn thKw hfcpw.  hf XmcXtay\ Ipdbm\nSbp hfqdp Ipd anemWv A[nI km{XmIrjn cocn A`nejWobw.  A[nI hf {]ISambm CSbvp sNSnI \opIbpw sNSn ]q hfsbptmtgpw Ah Xn 8 * 8 ao AIew e`yamIpIbpw thWw.  hfbpsS BZy \mfpIfn e`np t_mWkv hnfhmWv A[nI km{Xm IrjntmfpsS asmcp ta. 

           Db hnfhv InpXn\p ]pdta, CSbvp ac apdnp amptm Inp hndIpw IjI\v Hcp A[nI hcpam\ amambn ImWmw. 

  • tSmv hnwMv

          DXv]mZ\ tijn Ipdv hm[Iy Zitbmfsanb Iipamhns\ ]p\xcpohnnphm\p X{amWv tSm]v hnMv.  DXv]mZ\tijn hfsc Ipd 5 apX 20 hjn\Iap IipamhpIsf hnPbIcambn DXv]mZ\ Zibntev Xncnp sImWvSphcm CXp klmbnpw.  CXn\v Xd\ncn \nv 0.75 apX 1.00 ao Dbcnembn Ccw ac apdnbvpI.  tabv - sk]vw_ amkfmWv CXn\p \Xv.  apdnp \ongnv 50 {Kmw Im_mdnepw 50 {Kmw tIm HmIvkntmssdUpw Hmtcm en shůn ebnnv apdnhmbn ]pcpI.  30-45 Znhkw Ignbptm apf s]mpXp ImWmw.  Cs\ s]mp apfI 20-25 Znhks hfsbptm anI acfn \np HpssXIfpambn arZpImWvU Hn coXnbn HnbvWw.  ]pXpapfIfn ]tm ]Xn\tm Hnbv \Snbm am{Xta Btdm Gtgm Fsanepw hnPbIcambn hfp InpIbpp.  Ccn Hnm Ghpw A\ptbmPyamb kabw Pqembv- \hw_ amkfmWv.  av HpssXIfpsS kpKaamb hfbvv thWvSp Fm Imcyfpw ChnsSbpw sNWw.  tSmv hnMv \Snb ac cWvSmw hjw apX Imbv ]nSnbvm XpSpw.  Fnepw htXmXn IqSpX ev CXp \SpXv {iaIcambncnpw.