Xncnv

   HmnUn\v ^v FbvUv

 
    
Aemc]pjv] IpSpw_nse ]alnjnbmWv HmnUv ]qhv. hn]Wnbn kmam\yw \ hne Inpp FXn\m HmnUn\v Bcm[I GsdbmWv.  ap Imcyfn Fsmw \njvIjnmepw tcmKfn \npw {]mWnIfn \npw HmnUns\ cnphm IqsS \apv IgnbWw.  Fn am{Xta ]pgptSpw CetSpw CmsX tNmSp \mbn hfcpIbpw ]pjv]npIbpw sNpIbpffp. Npcpn HmnUv hfp Hcmġv ^v FbvUv PRm\hpw HmnUv tXmn\v ^kvv FbvUv kwcWhpw e`nWw FYw. 

HmnUns\ D]{Zhnms\p i{Xp{]mWnIfn \np XpSmw. 

ap (G^nUv)

HmnUv sNSnbpsS hfcp A{K`mKfn IqSnbncpv kky\ocp henp IpSnp sNdnb {]mWnbmWv ap.  Chbvv ]tbm shfftbm \ndamImw. ap _m[n sNSn Ipdp Ignv afnm XpSpw. apsb Hcp sNSnbn \nv thsdmcp sNSnbntep ]cpXv DdpmWv.  apbpsS icocn \np {khnp a[pcckw \pWbm\mWv DdppI Chsb ]nqSpXv. Cu a[pc{khw sImWvSv asmcp tZmjhpapWvSv. Ch CeIfn ]nnSnm {ItaW AhnsS Icnw]qp hfcpw.  CXpw sNSnv lm\nIcamWv. 

apsb AIn \nm C\ndbphbn Hcp IoS\min\n cWvSmgvN CShnv XfnWw. tdmK30 C. kn. Asæn FmeIvkv 25 A. kn (Hcp en shffn cWvSp ann acpv) ap_m[ Hgnhmbm acppXfnbpw \nWw. 

Ddpv  

Ddpns\, HmnUns Hcp {][m\ i{Xp Fp ]dbm Ignbn. Fnepw ieymcb apIsf ]cpXv DdpmWv.  AXpsImWvSv Ddpn Iqsbpw \nb{nt Xocp.  CXn\v skhn 50 WP F acpp]tbmKnmw.  Cu acpv 4 {Kmw Hcp en shffn Ien XfnWw. 

i¡w 

i¡{]mWn (kvsIbnkv) HmnUns Hcp apJy D]{ZhImcnbmWv.  {_u kvsIbnkv, tkm^vv kvsIbnkv,  lmUvkvsIbnkv Fns\ hnhn[Xcw i¡{]mWnI HmnUn\v \miw hcpmdpWvSv.  Ce, ]qhv, XWvSv Fnhbnsems i¡w ]nqSn \ocpIpSnv \innpw.  IoS_m[tb `mK DWn \inpw.  amv,  G{]n, tabv amkfnemWv i¡ieyw cqamIpXv i¡ {]mWnI hfsc thKw s]p s]cpIpsaXpw {]iv\ambnocmdpWvSv. 

i¡{]mWnIġv AhbpsS icocn\p ]pdv sagpIp sImWvSpff kzm`mhnIamb Hcp ]pdwNbpWvSv.  AXn\m kv]iI hnjsfmpw Gn.  ChnsS Ahym]\tijnbpff tdmK 30 C kn F IoS\min\nbmWp]tbmKntWvSXv.  CXn cWvSp ann Hcp en shffn Ien sNSnbn cWvSmgvN CShnv \mbn kvt{] sNpI.  acpv apnb ]gb Sqv{_jv Dckn XWvSn \npw apw _eambn Chsb Cfnfbpamhmw.

aoenap

CebpsSbpw XWvSnsbpw appIfnepw aqebnepw Hs  shfp s]mSn t]mse ]nqSnbncnpXmWv aoenap.  Ch hfsc arZpe icocnIfmWv.  Chbpw DdppIsf BIjnpXn\mbn a[pc{Zhw {khnmdpWvSv.

Fn Ipdshn aoenapsb Hcp ]gb Sqv {_tjm atm sImWvSv XpSp \omhpXmWv.  {_jns A{K`mKw Ipdv   B¡tlmfn apnbnv XpSm aXn.FmeIvkv 25 C kn Asæn samknUv 50 C kn Chbnsemcp IoS\min\n cWvSp annen shffn Ien Xfnpw aoenapsb \innmw. 

]m 

 HmnUv tXmn ]mbpw ieymc Xs.  {]tXyInv XWhe hncnv sNSnI hfp tXmn.  hfcp thcpIfpsS A{K`mKw Nhp XnpXp ]mbvv hfsc CjvSamWv.  ]m ]I kabv Nnpffn¯s Hfnncnpw.  Nn AtXmsS FSpv Ipdp \nanj shffn apnbm ]m ]pdp NmSpXp ImWmw. 

Cu shffn ametbm t]mepff Hcp IoS\min\n IqsS Ienbncpm ]msb sImpI FfpamIpw.  s_bvtKm t]mse ]msb BIjnp \innphm Ignhpff hnjhpw D]tbmKnmw.  CXp Ap {Kmw hoXw Htcm NnbpsSbpw Nphn hnXdnbncpm aXn. ]msb sImm Ignhpff Hcp \mS hnjqpw D]tbmKnmw. CXn\v  t_mdnIv BknUv, ]kmc, ssaZamhv Fnh 1:2:7 F A\p]mXn Ien hnjw XmdmWw. 

CXv 10 {Kmw hoXv Htcm Nnbnepw \nt]nm ]mIsf BIjnv \innphm km[npw. 

{Xn]vkv 

sNdnb t\ Hcp ann ao am{Xw \ofapff Ipp {]mWnIfmWv {Xn]vkv.  Ch ]qhn\npw ]qsamn \npw \ocv hensSppp. th\ kabmWv  ChbpsS ieyw cqamhpI. FmeIvkv, tdmK Chbnsemcp IoS\min\n 2 ann, Hcp en shffn Ien Xfnm {Xn]vkv ieyw \nb{nmw.  IoSia\apWvSmIpXp hsc acpp Xfn Fm BgvNbpw \SWw. 

HmnUv hWvSv

 ena s]Ivsmdmenkv Fp t]cpff a \ndapff hWvSpw AtKmWn kv]mtmtmnkv Fp t]cmb sNdnb {_u \ndapff hWvSpw HmnUn\v D]{ZhamImdpWvSv.  Ch cWvSpw HmnUv ]qsampI Xnv Ahbn kpjnc hogvpp.  ChbpsS ]pgp ]qsampw CfwCeIfpw thcpIfpsams \innpw. skhn,  ssUsatmtbv Chbnsemcp IoS\min\n BgvN tXmdpw Xfnv hWvSpIsf \nb{nmw. 

sNffv 

Cebn \npw XWvSn \npw \ocqnpSnpIbmWv sNffpIfpsS B{IaWssien.  \\hpw NqSpw CSIe Acon sNffv IWnmsX s]p s]cpIpp.  CeIfpsS ASnhimWv sNffv ]nIqSnbncnpI.  ]qsfbpw CXv {]XnIqeambn _m[npw. 

sIsbn Fp t]cmb acpv cWvSp ann Hcp en shffn Ien Xfnm sNffns\ \innmw. 

Hv

cm{Xn Imefn HmnUv sNSnv \miw hcppXn Hv henb ]v hlnpp. thcnsbpw XWvSnsbpw A{K`mKamWv Ch XnpI.  Amn\ ^ypfn Fp t]cmb XSnb B{^n Hpw ieyamImdpWvSv.  cm{Xnbn sNSnIfn tSmv sXfnv t\mnbm Ch sas  kcnpXv ImWmw.  HpIsf ItmsS ]nSnIqSn ISpn Dv Ienb shffn apnsImmw. Asæn samUnsslUv s_bnv hpw ]nSnmw. 

tcmK-Hcp ]nSn tcmKfpw HmnUv tXmn\v D]{ZhambnocmdpWvSv.  B{mIvt\mkv, AgpI, Cepffn, hmS XpSnbh Chbn {][m\sXmWv. 

B{mIvt\mkv

 ntbmkvt]mdnbw C\ns IpanfmWv B{mIvt\mkv tcmKw hcpn hbvpXv.  CeIfn ]pffn Ipmbn tcmKw XpSpp.  {ItaW \ndw amdn IcnpWpp.  ]qfnepw Cu tcmKw {_utWm Idptm \ndnepff ]pffnIfmbn ImWmw. 

CtUm^n Fw -45 F Ipan\min\n 2 ann Hcp en shffn Ien BgvN tXmdpw Xfnv tcmKw \nb{nmw. 

AgpI 

ss^tm^vtXmd F IpanfmWv AgpI tcmKn\v  tlXp. icnbmb hmbp kmcanmXpw Acon Cuns Awiw A[nIcnpXpw tcmK _m[bvnSbmpw.  AgpI ssXIsf hfsc thKw _m[npw. CeIfn {_utWm Idptm \ndambn amdpp. sImpI DWm\pw aXn.  thcv, ]qhv Fnhsbbpw AgpI _m[npw.   bYmkabw \nb{nnsæn sNSn ]mtS \inpw. 

KpcpXcambn tcmKw _m[n  sNSnIsf tXmn \nsmgnhmn \innp IfbpI.  Hcp iXam\w hocyapff t_mtUman{inXw XfnpI. 

Cepffn

 Hne[nIw IpanfpIfpsS D]{ZhamWv HnUn\v Cepffn hcm ImcWw. tUmt{Um_nbw  HmnUn BWv ChbpsS ieyw IqSpXembn ImWpXv.  CtUm^n Fw 45 F Ipan\min\n XsbmWv CepffntcmKw amcIamIpXv XSbm ^e{]Zw. 

]qs]mff 

Ihptednb, t_m{Snnkv Fns\ cWvSn\w IpanfpIfmWv HmnUns hnebpff ]qsf s]mffnbXp t]mse hnIeampXpw XnsmgnpXpw.  ]qfn {]XysSp AgpInbXp t]mepff ]mSpI hfsc thKw hym]npp. 

0.2 iXam\w CtUm^n Fw 45 Xfnv Ahtijnp ]qsf cnmw. 

hmtcmKw 

hfsc KpcpXcamb Hcp Ipan tcmKamWv hmw(hnv)  tcmK_m[nXamb sNSnbpsS Cuw apgph \jvSsSpw.  {ItaW XWvSn\pw ap \ndw amdn sNSn hmSn \inpw. 

_mhnn F Ipan \min\n 0.1 iXam\w hocyn BgvN tXmdpw Xfnm sNSnsb hmn \inmw. 

_mIvocnb tdmv

 hfsc XnnsRcpn HmnUvsNSnI hfcp tXmfn  thWvSv{X hmbpkmcanmsX hfcpIbpw Cuns Awiw IqSpIbpw sNptm _mIvocnb tdmv {]XysSpw.  sUt{Um_nbw HmnUns\bmWv Cu tcmKw Gsdbpw _m[npI. ssXIsf _mIvocnbtcmKhpw. tcmK_m[nXamb HmnUns CeIfn Xhnp \ndapff sNdnb ]pffnI ImWmw.  CXv Ce apgph hym]nv sImgnbm\pw CSbmpw. 

tcmK_m[ Zriyambm DS Xs Acw sNSnI tXmn \nv \oWw.  Acon Cumwiw A[nIapff kabv sNSnIfn Fsnepw apdnthm Xtam DWvSmbm AXv _mIvocnb  _m[bvv hgn sXfnpw.  A{Knssakn F Huj[w 600 ann {Kmw Hcp en shffn Asæn kvs{S]vtmsskn 200 ann {Kmw 1 en-shffn Chbnsemv BgvN tXmdpw tcmK_m[ IWvS sNSnIfn XfnbvpI. 

sshdkv  tcmK 

CeIġv \ndw amw, cq] hymXymkw, hcIfpw apw hogpI, sasskv cq]n IppI ]ScpI ChsbmbmWv sshdkv _m[bpsS eW. sshdkv tcmKambXn\m \nb{W hn[nIfpan. 

AXpsImWvSv sshdkv _m[ IWvSmepS Xs Acw sNSnI Iqn \np ampI. Fnv Xo Inv \innpI. AmnStmfw   Ah tcmKhmlIcmbn {]hnp sImtWvSbncnpw. 

Hcp IuXpIn\p thWvSn Htm ctWvSm, HmnUv sNSnI hfphcmbmepw ]tm Bbnctam sNSnI Hcp hmWnPy bqWnmbn hfphcmbmepw HmnUpIġv \tIWvS kky kwcW hn[nI AdnncntWvSXv AXymhiyamWv