Xncnv

   Imnsb _m[np IoSfpw tcmKfpw


       Imnrjnsb tZmjIcambn _m[np tcmKsfbpw IoSsfbpw Ipdnv t\mmw    

tcmKfpsS Iqn Gddhpw {ibmIjnpXpw Imnrjnbvv Gddhpw \mi\jvSw hcppXpw Cepcpv, IcnwNob Fo cWvSv Ipan tcmKfmWv  

Cepcpv tcmKw  

ImnsSnsb _m[np Gddhpw {][m\ tcmKamWv Cepcpv. slaoenb hmkvddm{SnIvkv Fv t]cmb IpanfmWv tcmKtlXp. Ad_n Imnbn henb \miw hcpnhbvpp Cu tcmKw Cybn BZyambn 1870 BWv tcJsSpnbXv. B tcmKw \nanw Imnhnfhn 50 apX 60 iXam\w hsc \jvSw kw`hnmw  

tcmK_m[ CeIfn {]XyamIpp. CebpsS ASn`mKv sNdnb Cfwa\ndapff ]pffnppI ImWpp. CXv {ItaW Hv tNv Ce sImgnbm\pw XpSbmb CesImbnb sNSnbpsS XpSpff hfsbbpw hnfhns\bpw {]XnIqeambn _m[npIpw sNpw.  

tcmK_m[bvv km[yXbpff efn hfcp ImnsSnIġv 0.5 iXam\w t_mtUm an{inXtam 0.03 iXam\w mv hmIvkv 20 C. kntbm hjn aqp {]mhiyambn XfnpI. 0.5 iXam\w t_mtUm an{inXw s^{_phcn amn ]qhncnbpXn\v aptm ]qhncnXn\v tijtam Xfnmw. Asæn mv hmIvkv 20 C. kn 0.03 iXam\w tabv PqWn ]qhncnbpXn\v apv mv hmIvtkm t_mtUm an{inXtam Pqsse BKkvddnse Hcp CSme kvt{] Abn Xfnmw. agbvv tijw sk]vddw_ HIvtSm_dn Hcp acpvXfn IqSn \Snbm Cu tcmKn \npw sNSnIsf cnm Ifnbpw  

IcnwNob  

icnbmb coXnbn shfnhpw hmbphpw ISm Cumwiw ImntmfnemWv IcnwNob F Ipan tcmKw Gsdbpw DWvSmIpXv Ipanfns D]{Zhw sImWvSv CeIfpw XWvSpw ImbIfpw Hs Idpp Nobpp. ImnI [mcmfambn sImgnbpIpw CesImgnn kw`hnpIpw sNpp. I\ \jvSw hcpnhbvp tcmKw IqSnbmWv IcnwNob.  

tcmmKkm[yXbpff {]tZien aghcpXn\v appXs Hcp iXam\w t_mtUm an{inXw sImWvSv \mbn XfnWw. tcmK_m[ ImWp inJcfpw addpw bYmkabw \ow sNbvXv Inv IfbpI Xs thWw t_mtUm an{inXw Xfn hoWvSpw XpScmw.  

i{Xp]mWnI  

ImnIrjnbvv D]{Zhw hcpp {][m\ i{Xp]mWnI shffap, Imbvpc, NnXWvSv Xpc, shffWvSv Xpc, ap FnhbmWv.  

shffap  

hb\mnse Imntmfn shffap Hcp ncw ieymc\mWv. ]qpe, Imbv, Ce, Cfw XWvSpI Fnhbn \nv \ocqddn IpSnp. X\nanw ]qsampIfpw ImbvIfpw s]mgnbpp. th\¡memWv apieyw cqamIpXv. XW hfsc Ipdvt]mb tXmfn ap_m[bvv km[yX IqSpw  

DdppIfmWv apsb Hcp sNSnbn \nv asddmcp sNSnbntebvv sImWvSv t]mIpXv. ap _m[n sNSnIfn AXv {khnpp a[pckw IpSnm BWv. DdppI AhtbmsSmw IqSpXv. ChnsS Idp Hcp Xcw Ipanfpw ]ddnqSpw.  

tXmn Bhiyn\v XW \IpI FXmWv {][m\ IoS\nb{W amw ap_m[ XSbm BZyw DdppIsf \innWw. CXn\v ametbm 5 iXam\w, Izn\mt^mkv 1.5 iXam\w Fnhbnsemv Ddppff ImnbpsSbpw XWacfpsSbpw Nphn hnXdWw. IoS_m[bpff sNSnIfn FmeIvkv 25 C. kn (300 ann) t^mfnntbm 50 C, kn (300 ann) Fnhbnsemv 200 endd shffn 200 ann endd ]ibpw tNv \mbn IenXfnWw. thcn ap_m[bpsWvSv kwibnppshn Cu acpv CtXbfhn thcv \\bhw Hgnv sImSpm aXn.  

ImbvXpc  

XW IqSpXepff tXmfnemWv Imbvpcs D]{Zhw cqambnImWpXv. {]tXyInv tdm_kvddm ImnbnemWv CXns ieyw A[nIamIpXv. ]cnpd Imnbn XpcapWvSmn apbnSpp. ap hncnndp ]pgp XpcfpWvSmn Dffnse ]cnv Xnv Pohnpp.  

hnfshSpv IrXykabv \SpI, ]qWambpw \SpI, sNSnbntem \netm hnf ImbvI \nmXncnpI FnhbmWv {][m\ tcmK\nb{W \S]Sn. Xmsg hoWvInSp ImnmbvI ]qWambpw s]dpnsbSpv \innWw. IoS\min\n {]tbmKw Bhiysan FtUmk^m 35 C. kn (340 ann) 200 endd shffn 200 ann ]ibpw tNv IoS_m[bpff sNSnIfn am{Xw kvt{]b D]tbmKnv XfnWw.  

Nn XWvSpXpc  

tdm_kvsddbmWv Nn XWvSvXpc {][m\ambpw D]{ZhnpXv. s] hWvSpI CfwXWvSpI Xpcv apbnSpp. XWvSpI DWpp.sNSnIfpsS hf apcSnpp. sk]vddw_-HIvtSm_ amkfnemWv ChbpsS B{IaWw IqSpXembn ImWpXv.  

XW Bhiyn\v \nb{nv \nnbpw \ohmm kuIcyw hnnpIpw IoSieyw \nb{nmw.  

shffWvSpXpc  

Ad_nsbbmWv shffWvSvXpc Gsd D]{ZhnpXmbn IWvSncnpXv. G{]n tabv, HIvtSm_ Unkw_ Fo amkfnemWv ChbpsS B{IaWw cqamIpI. s] hWvSv XmbvSnbpsSbpw imJIfpsSbpw hnffepIfnepw addpwapIfnSpw. aphncnndp ]pgp XSnbn XpcfpWvSmpp. {ItaW sNSn hmSm\pw DWm\pw XpSpp.  

XW {IaoIcnpI, IoS_m[bpff sNSnI shn \innpI FnhbmWv {]mYanI \nb{W hn[nI. XSnbn Npmv]it]memn tXv ]nSnnm IoS_m[ Ipdbvmw. G{]n tabv amkfn entU 20 C. kn, 1300 ann endd shffn tNv 200 endd ]ibpambn Ien {][m\ XSnbnepw imJIfnepw tXv ]nSnnpItbm XfnpItbmsNmw ths XfnpXpw \XmWv.  

apI  

ap cWvSv XcapWvSv. Cfw ] \ndapff ]apbpw Xhnv \ndapff, Xhnv apbpw. th\ ImemWv ChbpsS D]{Zhw cqamIpXv. Ch sNSnIfpsS arZpe `mKfn \nv \ocqddnIpSnpp. As\ sNSnI oWnpp.  

t\cs kqNnnXv t]mse DdppIfmWv apbpsS hmlI. AXn\m Ddpn IqSpI \innWw. Xhnv apsb \nb{nm FmeIvkv 25 C. kn (300 ann) t^mfnntbm 50 C. kn (300 ann) FnhbmWv 200 endd shffn 200 ann ]ibpw kvt{]b D]tbmKnv XfnWw.  

]apsb \nb{nm FmeIvkv 25 C. kn (120 ann) t^mfnntbm 50 C. kn (100 ann) Chbnsemv 200 endd ann ]ibpw tNv XfnpI.