Xncnv

     sXns sNoscmenv XSbm amKtfsd


     
sXv Irjn sNp Fm cmPyfnepw ImWp {][m\ tcmKamWv sNoscmenv. (Stream bleeding).  1960- {ioebnemWv BZyambn Cu tcmKw IWvSvXv.  Cybn sXpIrjnbp anhmdpw Fm kwm\fnepw Cu tcmKw IWvSp hcpp.  1999- eZzo]v HmUn\dn C\w sXn tcmKw ImWpIbpWvSmbn.  

Fmcw anepw hfcp sXpIfn sNoscmenv IWvSphcpp.  IS¯oc, Imbtemc, sN {]tZi FnhnSfn hfcp sXpIfnemWv Cu tcmKw IqSpXembn ImWpXv.  Fm {]mbnep sXpIsfbpw Cu tcmKw _m[npp.  t]cn\np Xs tcmKeWw GItZiw a\knemmw.  sXnXSnbnep hnepIfn \nv ISpwNphp Ie Xhnp\ndnep {ZmhIw HenndpXmWv BZy tcmKeWw.  {ItaW, Cs\ ]e hnepIfn \npw Henndp Id DWn Xpcpp ]nSnt]mse Idpv Icphmfnv henb ]mSpIfmbn amdpp.  XmaknbmsX kmh[m\w apIfntev hym]npp. 

sNoscmenp `mKs sXmen sNnt\mnbm, D`mKw NobpXp ImcWw aIe Xhnp\ndnep ]mSpI ImWmw.  XSnbpsS ]pdwsXmenbnep ]mSpIsfm hepXmbncnpw D`mKs Nob aqeapWvSmIp ]mSpI.  Nob h[nv tcmKw cqamIptXmsS XSnbpsS D`mKw Idp \mcpt]msebmIpp.  Atm sXn aWvSbnepw tcmKeW {]XysSpp.  ]pdw aSepI afnv HSnv XqpIbpw DWpIbpw sNpp.  {ItaW sXnaWvS timjnpIbpw Imbv^ew \t IpdbpIbpw sNpw.  ssXspIfn tcmKw _m[nptm {]mbamb sXpItfm thKnembncnpw D`mKs Nob ]ScpXv.  As\ arZphmb `mK hfsc thKw NobpXpImcWw D`mKw {ZmhIw \nd Hcdt]msebmbnocpp.  Cu `mKw IpnsmnpIbmsWn {ZmhIw ]pdtv shwt]mse HenpXp ImWmw.  Cu eWw A]qhambn {]mbamb sXpIfnepw, XWpp IqSpXep {]tZifnepw IWvSphcpp.  

Xnemhntbmknkv ]mctUmIvk F IpanfmWv tcmKtlXp.  sXn XSnbn ImWp apdnhpIfn¡qSnbpw hf aqeapWvSmIp hnepIfn¡qSnbpamWv Cu Ipan XSnbn {]thinnv tcmKapWvSmpXv.  \oWvS hcĨbvptijw. s]sv agbpWvSmIpXpw, ssPhhffpsS D]tbmKw Ipdv Bhiyne[nIw cmkhf{]tbmKw \SpXpw XSnbn IqSpX hnepI DWvSmIm ImcWamIpp.  hfsc Inbp sN {]tZifn thcpIġv km[mcW coXnbn hfcm km[nmsX hcnI, shwsIn \n¡pI Fns\bp LSI sNoscmenp tcmKw hcm\p km[yX Iqpp.      

tcmK \nb{Ww.  

tcmK_m[bp tXmfn \ohm {IaoIcnpI, th\¡mev Bhiym\pkcWw PetkN\w \SpI hgn hnepIfpWvSmIpXv IpdbvmhpXmWv.  an ssPhmwiw \ne\npXn\mbn acsamn\v 50 Intem{Kmw ssPhhf \tIWvSXmhiyamWv.  tcmKw_m[n `mK sNn \onbXn\ptijw apdnhn t_mtUm Ipgtm, NqSmnb tImSmtdm ]pcphm\mWv Cu ASpImew hscbpw \ntinncpXv.  Fm, ss{SUntam^v (ImenIvkn) F Ipan \min\n D]tbmKnv Cu tcmKw ]qambpw \nb{nm km[npsav ]T\ sXfnbnncnpp.  

Bcw`ZibnXs \nb{W amK Ahew_nm Cu tcmKs ]qWambpw \nb{nmw.  tcmK_m[nX `mK sNnamnbXn\p tijw, Av iXam\w hocyn Xmdmnb ImenIvkn (Av annen ImenIvkn, 100 ann en shůn FtXmXn) apdnhn ]pcWw.  cWvSpZnhkn\ptijw Dcpnb Sm Cu `mKv tXbvmw.  

Fm, ]p - ]Xn\v hjn Xmsg {]mbap sXpIfn NqSmnb Sm ]pcnbm B `mKs tImi shpt]mIpXn\m IqSpX Id Henm ImcWamIpw.  CXv KpWntesd tZmjw sNpw.  Ap iXam\w hocyap ImenIvkn thcneqsS sImSppXpw Ghpw ^e{]ZamWv.  thcn¡qSn Av iXam\w hocyap ImenIvkn sXsmn\v 100 annen hoXw hjn aqv XhW (P\phcn, Pq, HIvtSm_) \IWw.  IqSmsX, hjn Hcn sXsmn\v ApIntem{Kmw thn]nmv sXnXSn aphftmsSmw CpsImSppXpw ^e{]Zambncnpw.  

thn]nmv tcmKImcnbmb Ipanfns hfsb \ncpmlsSpptXmsSmw ss{StmsUa t]mep FXn IpanfpIfpsS hfsb t{]mmlnnpIbpw sNpp.