Xncnv

WTO Icm: tUm. kzman\mY Ioj dntmpw \S]SnIfpw 


       Kmv Icm
1948 emWv HphXv.  22 cmPyfmWv BZyapWvSmbncpXv. AXn Cybpw DsSpp.  Icmdns XpSbmbn temI hym]mc kwLS\ (WTO) \nehn hcpIbpw 1950- ImjnItaJebn Agreement on Agriculture {]mhnIampIbpw sNbvXp.  Icmdn 110 cmPy DWvSmbncpp.  BtKmfhXvIcWns `mKambn temI cmPy Xnep IhSw \oXnbpampIsbXmWv Icmdns DSw. CybpssSbp cmPy AhcpsS kZvhyhbpw hn]WnIfpw Xpdp sImSpm _m[ycmWv.  temIhn]Wn {]m]yX hn]pesSppI, Irjnmp B`yc ]cnc \ymbbpampI, s]mXpipNnXzkkyipNnXz am\ZWvU A\pkcnv Hmtcm AwKcmPyhpw Ii\amb KpW\nehmcw Dev]fpsS DXv]mZ\ {]{Inbbn \njvIjnv \SmpI FnhbmWv Cu IcmdpIfpsS  hyhI.  hym]mc kw_amb _unI kzhImi hyhI {]Imcw Hmtcm AwKcmPyhpw AhcpsS Dev]fpsS _unI kzhImiw kw_nv Bhiyamb \nba\namWfpw t`ZKXnIfpw hcpn Ahsbmw kwcntWvSXmWv.  

Cu Icmdn, Irjnsb kw_n Agreement on Agriculture- Xmsgdbp Nne {][m\ kwKXnI \njvIjnpp.  

  • Market Access (hn]Wn {]thiw/hn]Wn {]m]yX) 

  • Domestic Support (B`yc ]cnc) 

  • Export Subsidies (IbddpaXn CfhpI) 

  • Sanitary and phyto sanitary measures (s]mXpipNnXzkkyipNnXz am\ZWvU) 

  • Trade Related Intellectural Property Rights (TRIPS)  IhSkw_amb _unI kzhImiw)  

hn]Wn {]thi ({]m]yX) hyhI {]Imcw 1995 apX 2004 hscbp 10 hjmew sImWvSv CdpaXn kw_n \nb{W \ow sNtWvSXmsWv hyhsNpp. cmPy CdpaXn Xocph (Import duties) LwLambn Ipdp sImWvSphv, 2005-HmSp IqSn AXv HgnhmWw. 825 Hmfw ImjntImev]ġv 1997 G{]n Hmw XobXn apX \nehnepWvSmbncp CdpaXn Afhp\nb{Ww 2001 G{]n Hmw XobXntbmSpIqSn \ow sNsSpIbpWvSmbn.  Ccw \n_\I Cysb kw_nnStmfw Zqchy]Iamb {]XymLmX DfhmphbmWv.  DdptKz duWvSn Cy kXnX\pkcnv {]mYanI ImjntImev]ġv 50 iXam\hpw kwkvIcns ImjntImev] ġv 150 iXam\hpw `y FIġv 800 iXam\hpwGXm\pw Nneh HgnsI-Np\ncpI AwKoIrX ]cn[nbmbn \nbnsnpXmWv.    

B`yc ]cnc A\pkcnv Hmtcm AwKcmPysbpw B`yc DXv]mZIv (domestic producers)  Khsav \Ip ]cnc bpnklampIbpw IhSs hnIeamp Xcnep ]cncI HgnhmpIbpw sNtWvSXmbnpWvSv.  Icm{]Imcw Ctm DsSpnbnp {Ko t_mIvkv, q t_mIvkv, Bw_ t_mIvkv Fnhbvp]Icambn IjIcpsS D]Poh\sXmgn kpcnXXzw Ddphcpm\mbn Hcp ]pXnb 'Livelihood Security Box' DsSpm WTO A\pcRvP\ NIfn DbnWsapw ip]mi sNbvXnpWvSv.  

IbddpaXn kuP\y hyhI {]Imcw Hmtcm AwKcmPysbpw kmdpI ImjntImev] IbddpaXn sNphm\mbn \Inhcp ]cnc {ItaW IpdpsImWvSp hv FSpp IfbpIbpw  sNtWvSXmIpp.  

s]mXp ipNnXz-kkyipNnXz am\ZWvU {]Imcw Hmtcm AwKcmPyhpw Ii\amb KpW\nehmcw DXv]fpsS DXv]mZ\ {]{Inbbn \njvIjnv \SmtWvSXmbnpWvSv.  

hym]mc kw_amb _unI kzhImi hyhI {]Imcw 2005 P\phcntbmSpIqSn Hmtcm AwKcmPyhpw AhcpsS Dev]fpsS _unI kzhImiw (Intellectual Property Rights)kw_nv Bhiyamb \nba\namWfpw t`ZKXnIfpw hcpn Ahsbmw kwcnstSWv SXmbnpWvSv.  Cy t]ddv \nbaw (1970), Geographical Indications of Goods (Registration and Protection) Act, 1999 protection of plant varieties and Farmers' Right Act, 2001, Biological Diversity Bill, 2002 Fnh Cu cwKv Cy FSpnp \nba\namW \S]SnIfmWv.  _kvaXn, Acn, UmPnenwKv tXbne, aem IpcpapfIv, cXv\Kncn, atKmh, _wK\n, Ztkcn amg FnhbpsS t]ddv kwcWw Pntbm{Km^n CUntjkn DsSpp.  

tUm. kzman\mY Ioj dntmpw \S]SnIfpw  

temI hym]mccmdn (WTO)  GsXp aqew Cybnse {]tXyInv, tIcfnse Irjnmv Dfhmbnp Zqjy^e Fs\ adnISmsapw Icm aqeapWvSmb KpW^e IjIv Fs\ IqSpX {]tbmP\sSpmsapw kwm\ Khsav BcmbpIbpWvSmbn.  1995-se temIhym]mc DSSnptijw BtKmfImjnI hn]W\cwKv ImXemb amdd kw`hnp. hnIknX-hnIkzcAhnIknX cmPy Xn hn]Wn hyhbn AkaXzw km[mcWamWv.  Cu ]menemWv {]apJ Irjnimkv{Xڳ tUm.Fw.Fkv. kzman\mY A[y\mbn Hcp Iojs\ (Commission on WTO Concerns in Agriculture) tIcf km 2001- \ntbmKnXv.  WTO Icmdns KpW^e {]tbmP\sSppXn\pw AXns tZmj^efpsS Xo{hX IpdbvpXn\pw thWvSn Khsav kzoIcntWvS \S]SnIsfpdnv ]Tnv dntmv \IpXn\p thWvSnbmbncpp Iojs\ apJyambpw \ntbmKnXv. Ioj \Inb CSme dntmv tZmlm tIm^dkn D]tbmKnphm kwm\ Khsav Xocpam\saSppXn\p apmbn sXpw ImeXmakw hcmsX tI{Khsan\v Abp sImSppIbpw sNbvXp. 2003 P\phcnbn e`n Ana dntmns tImn \nbak`bn AwKġv hnXcWw sNbvXp. Ioj dntmv 2003 s^{_phcn 20-se a{nk`mtbmKn NsNpIbpw kzoIcntWvS \S]SnIsfddn ip]miI kanm No^v sk{Idn A[y\mbpw ImjntImXv]mZ\ IojW D]m[y\pambn Hcp Enpowered Committee cq]oIcnpIbpw sNbvXp. A`wKpcamb Hcp ImjnI hym]mc kpcnXXz kwhn[m\w sInSpphm Khsans\ klmbnp ip]miIfpw \ntZifpw BWv Ioj ip]miIfnepXv. mbnbmbnp Hcp hym]mc kwhn[m\w sInSpm FSptWvS \S]SnIfn {][m\ambXv CXn\\pkrXambn kwm\ Khsans ImjnI \bcq]oIcWw, DXv]mZ\aXm h[\hv, KpW\nehmcta, Irjn IqSpX BZmbIcamm\p km[yX h[nnpI, ]cnc A`nhrn, DXv]mZ\ hcpam\ kpncX FnhbmWv.  

tIcfns hym]mcX{w 3 amK\ntZi XXzfn A[njvTnXambncnWw.  

  1. B`yc hym]mcw hym]IampIbpw AXn\mbn sNehns Imcynepw KpWtabnepw IqSpX {i sNeppIbpw sNpI.

  2. SAARC, ASEAN taJebvv Du sImSppsImWvSv hnIkzc cmPyfpambn hym]mc _ԧ A\pcRvPnnv Hnv aptdpI.

  3. a[y]qthjy cmPy B{^n, bqtdm]y cmPy, djy, Atacn sFIy\mSpI, hSt Atacn XpSnb cmPyfpambn BtKmfhym]mcw hnIknnpI.  

mbnbmb Hcp ImjnI-hym]mc kpcnXXz kwhn[m\w bmYmYyamIWsan tI{-kwm\ kmdpI C\ndbp taJeIfn IqSpX apX apSWsav Ioj NqWvSnmpp.  

av, PekwcWw  

  • tdmUv, PetkN\w XpSnb {KmaoW ASnm\ kuIcy kwhn[m\  

  • hn]Wnbpw DXv]mZ\m\c kmtXnIhnZyIfpw  

  • ]mcnnXnI ktXsf kw_nv KthjWw, hnIk\w, hym]\w  

  • hnZym`ymkhpw BtcmKyhpw  

  • hcĨbpw addv {]IrXntm`fpw A`napJoIcn  

  • s]mXpipNXz-kkyipNnXz am\ZWvU ]men  

kwm\ km kzoIcn \S]SnI  

dntmnse ip]miI A\pkcnv kwm\ns DXv]mZ\hn]W\, kwkvIcW, IbddpaXn sXmgnkm[yXI h[nnpXn\v kwm\ Khsav C\ndbp \S]SnI CXn\Iw kzoIcnpIgnp.  

ImjnI hym]mc hn]W\cwKw kw_nv IrXyamb hnhc bYmkabw e`yampXn\v Hcp shNz khIemime \nehn hcppXn\v \S]SnI FSpp.  CXn\v Hcp tImSn cq] \Sp kmnIhjs _UvPn hIbncpn. 

Huj[kkyfpsS kwcWn\pw hnIk\n\pw Hcp Huj[ ssPh Xmgvhc (Herbal biovalley) cq]oIrXamIpXn\v XpSw Ipdnp.  10 ew cq] CXn\pthWvSn _UvPddn hIbncpn.  Huj[kkyġpw kpK{Zhyġpambn {]tXyI IbddpaXntaJe (A{Kn-FIvkvt]mv tkm) cq]oIcnm \S]Sn FSpp hcpp.  

Pntbm{K^n CUntjkv A\pkcnv kwm\s ImjntImev]ġv kpc Ddmp \S]SnI kzoIcnp hcpp. CXntebvmbn 10 ew cq] _UvPddn hIsImnnpWvSv. 

ssPhIrjnv t{]mml\w \IWsa Iojs dntmnse ip]miI (t]Pv 92) IWnseSpp sImWvSv kwm\v ssPhIrjn t{]mmlnnphm \S]SnI XpSn.  IrjnhIpv, ImjnI khIemime, k kwLS\Ifnse IrjnhnZKv[, imkv{XPvR XpSnbh DsSp Hcp kanXn cq]oIcnv {]h\tcJ XmdmpXpw, BZy]Snbmbn hb\mSv, CSpn, Iq PnIfnse 800 slIvS ev ioXIme ssPh]dnrjn, hb\mSv Pnbnse kpK s\n\fmb PocIime, KIime FnhbpsS hn]W\w, 1580 slIvS s]mmfn Imb{]tZiv ssPhIrjncoXn Fnh \Smphm\pw tI{ km klmbtmsS Hcp ssPhIrjn Ckvddnyqv XpSphm\pw Dtinpp.

Inm ]Xn  

Ioj dntmnse Role of Media and creation of media cell (Page 83) ]cnKWnp sImWvSv {io sI.]n.hn.\ym A[y\mbp Hcp sF.Sn. D]kanXn cq]oIcnpIbpw B kanXnbpsS ip]mi {]Imcap Hcp Inkm t{]mPIvSv (IjI C^taj knw khokkv Bv s\ddv hnwKv) sSenhnj Nm\epIfneqsS A\pZn\w ImjnI hnm\ hym]\w \Sphm\pap XmsdSppI ]qnbmnhcpp. III TN-K bpw FIB bpw tNmWv Cu ]Xn \SmpXv.  

PptcmK hnap taJe (Disease Free Zone of  Livestock)  

kzman\mY Iojs asddmcp ip]mibmWv kwm\s Hcp PptcmK hnaptaJebmpIsbXv(t]Pv 77) CX\pkcnv F.Un.Un._n.bpsS klmbtmsS kwm\s PptcmK \nb{W taJe (Disease Control Zone) Bphm\p \S]SnI CXn\Iw Bcw`npIgnp.  32 tImSn cq]bpsS Cu ]Xnv cq]w \Ingnp.  

ImjnI IbddpaXntaJe (A{Kn. FIvkvt]mv tkm)  

Iojs asmcp \ntZiamWnXv (t]Pv 71).  kwm\v DXv]mZnnp ]dnIfpsSbpw ]ghKfpsSbpw IbddpaXnkm[yX ]camh[n {]tbmP\sSpphm\pw ChbpsS htXmXnep IbddpaXn eyamnbpw kwm\s 9 PnIsf DsSpnsmWvSv cq]oIcnnp ImjnI IbddpaXn taJeI (Agri Export Zones) {]hnnphm\p \S]SnI FSpp Ignp.  

km cq]oIcnp kwm\ _tbmssUthgvknn t_mUv ssPhsshhn[yhn`hfpsS {]mYanI kwcIsc AhbpsS AwKoImcw, AXnt Ahp AhImiw, AlXs {]Xn^ew Fnh kw_nv kky-PpfpsS kwcWhpw IjIcpsS AhImifpw {]Imcw e`yamb ]cncsbpdnv t_m[hmmcmpXn\p \S]SnI FSppXmWv.  

IqSmsX, kwm\ imkv{X-kmtXnI-]cnnXn Iukn Hcp t]ddv C^taj sk m]npIgnnpWvSv.  Hcp amkn\Iw CXv ]qWambpw {]h\aamIpw.  

arKkwcWhpambn _sv Iojs ip]mibpsS ASnm\n F.Un.Un._nbpsS klmbtmsS Hcp tcmK \nb{nX taJebvv cq]w sImSppXn\mbn Hcp t{]mPIvSv Xmdmm\mbn hnZKv[ kanXnsb \ntbmKnpIbpw Ah 2003 amn t{]mPIvSv XmdmncpIbpw sNbvXnpWvSv.  32.36 tImSn cq] sNehp hcp Cu ]XnbpsS sNehv F.Un.Un._n. hlnpsa hyhbn a{nk`bpsS nbdkv e`nnpWvSv.

\mep doPnbW tcmK \nWb et_mdnI m]npXn\pw hmIvkn\pw doGPvkpw DXv]mZnnpXn\pap \ntZifpw ]cnKW\bnepWvSv. 

kzman\mY Ioj ip]mi sNbvX {]Imcw Hcp 'am[ya sk' cq]oIcnm ]nIv dntejkv hIpv  Xocpam\nnpWvSv.  CXn DsSpXn\p hnZKv[sc \nbnmepS sk {]h\aamIpw.  

kwm\ m\nwKv t_mUv ImjnI-A\p_ taJeIfnse \mS kmtXnI hnhc t{ImUoIcnv tcJsSpn kqnpXn\v m\nwKv Iojs klmbtmsSbp Hcp ]Xnp cq]wsImSpm\p {]h\ XpSngnp.  

kzman\mY Ioj dntmnse ay_\w kw_n ip]miIfpw \ntZifpw DsmWvSpsImWvSv Hcp IcSv \bw cq]sSpnbnpWvSv.  atymXv]mZ\nsbpw _s {]h\fpsSbpw KpWta h[nnpXn\p t_m[hXvcW ]cn]mSnI hntPpXenepw PnmXenepw kwLSnnm ay_\ hIpn \npw Pnm Hm^okamv \ntZiw \Ingnp.  

WTO Iojs ip]mibpsS ASnm\n hnt\mZ kmctaJebpsS hnIk\n\mbn Ctm-Sqdnkw, sl¯v Sqdnkw, kv]ncnNz Sqdnkw Fo aqp hn`mKfn DXXe InnI cq]oIcnm\pw Xocpam\nnpWvSv.  

tI{km kzoIcntWvS \S]SnI  

kzman\mY Ioj \Inb dntmn tI{km kzoIcntWvS \S]SnIsf kw_n ip]miI ChbmWv.  

  • ImjnItaJebn D]Poh\-sXmgn kpcnXw DdphcppXn\mbn WTO Icmdnse \memas t_mIvkmbn Livelihood security Box DsSppI.  

  • `y kpcnXXzn\mbn codex standard \SmpI.  

  • TRIPS- Bhiyamb t`ZKXnI hcppI.  

  • ImjntImev]ġv \ymbamb hne Ddmm\p \S]SnI kzoIcnpI.  

  • Agriculture Commodity Board-IfpsS LS\bnepw {]h\fnepw th am hcppI.  

  • hnfipNnXz (Phyto Sanitary) ns \nehmcn\p amZWvU \nbnpI.

ta]d ip]miI WTO-bpsS tZml tIm^dkn AhXcnnpXn\v \ntZi cqt]W tI{kmdn\v \Inbncpp.  

domkn^ntj Anhmcyw  

 WTO Icmdn ddns mn^ntj tIcfs kw_nv hfsc tZmjIcamWv.  kzm`mhnI ddns\ 'processed product' Bbpw Xqew 'Industrial raw-material' Dw BbnmWv Ctm XcwXncnnpXv.  BbXn\m CXn\p ]camh[n Permissible Tariff Rate (Bond Rate) 25 iXam\w BWv.  Fm ap ImjntImev]fmb ]cpn, Icnv apXembh A{KnIĨd t{]mUIvSv BbnmWv mknss^ sNbvXnpXv.  BbXn\m Ahbvv Xmcn^v tdv 100 iXam\w BWv.  ddns Imcynep Cu Acw amWw.  CXn\mbn do-mkn^ntj thWw.  Ibdnsbpw Pyqnsbpw Imcynepw CXmhiyamWv.  saIvkntmbnse ImIWn \Sp WTO-bpsS ASp an\nocnb tIm^dkn Cmcyw DbntWvSXmbnpWvSv.  CXn\mbn tI{kmdntev IpIfbbvpIbpw satmdmWvSw hgn Rm\pw apJya{nbpw ]e {]mhiyw tI{a{nsbbpw {][m\a{nsbbpw CXns {]m[m\yw [cnnpIbpw sNbvXnpWvSv.  

Akaamb hfbp cmPysf hn]Wnacns Htc tKmZmbnendn acnnpXnse Akzm`mhnIXbmWv Cv ZriyambncnpXv.  CXv Hcnepw \oXnbpa.  

1995 apX 2004 hscbp 10 hjmew sImWvSv CdpaXn kw_n \nb{W \ow sNtWvSXmsWv Icmdn hyh sNbvXncnpp.  cmPy CdpaXn Xocph LwLambn Ipdp sImphv 2005-HmSpIqSn AXv HgnhmWw.  Fm Ccsamcp kmlNcyn\v \mw Cpw kcmbnn.  AXn\m 2005 F Cu kab]cn[n Ipdp IqSn \onnWw F BhiyamWv hnIkzc cmPyfpsS `mKp \npWvSmtIWvSXv.