Xncnv

  Nnnq Irjn 

      Iq Fp tIm \psS Hmbn hcpXv hjImefn ]dpIfnepw Pon acpnIfnepw hfphcp hnhn[ BIrXnbnepw hfnepw D ]eXcw IqWpIfmWv.  Cu IqWpI kkytemIn lcnXclnX kkyfpsS Iqn sSp IpanfpIfpsS {^qnwKv t_mUn AYhm kvt]mtdmt^mdpIfmWv.

        BZnImew apX a\pjy IqWpIsf `y hkvXphmbn D]tbmKnncpp. Fm Ap agmev \mn]pdfn am{Xw e`yambncp IqWpI Cv Fmkabpw Fm epw e`yamhpXpt]mse Iq Irjn ]ptcmKannpWvSv. CXn\p ImcWw IqWn ASnbncnp aWw, cpNn t]mjIKpW FnhbmWv. hnIk\ cmPyfnsemw Cv Iq Irjn hn]pesphcnIbmWv. temIsamSpap imkv{XڷmcpsSbpw IrjnmcpsSbpw ]cn{ia^eambn ChbpsS Irjn Cv Ffphpw em`IchpambnonpWvSv.

        `qapJv GItZiw \mev]mbncw IqWn\ DsWvSnepw Ahbn `ytbmKyambh GItZiw cWvSmbncw C\fmWv. CXn Fgp]tXmfw  C\ imkv{Xobambn  IrjnsNmw Fp IWvSp]nSnnpsWvSnepw 20-25 C\ am{Xta hmWnPymSnm\n hnhn[cmPyfn Irjn sNppq.

        temIn BZyambn imkv{Xobamb coXnbn IqIrjn XpSnbXv 17-mw \qmWvSn {^mknemWv. ]noSv ap bqtdm]y cmPyfntepw ssN\, Xbvhm, sImdnb, Xmbvev, Pm, Cy apXemb cmPyfntepw Iq Irjn hym]np. Cybn BZyambn Iq Irjnsbn ]0\w \SnbXv 1908- k.tUhnUv {_bn F imkv{X\mbncpp. Fm hn]peamb coXnbn Iq Irjn Bcw`nXv 1960-emWv. sshv _ ajvdpw F C\amWv BZyambn Irjn sNpXn\v D]tbmKnXv. tIcf n Iq IrjnbpsS kmyXIsfnbp ]0\ Bcw`nXv 1970-75 ImeLn ImjnI kIemimebmWv. Ctm tIcfm ImjnI kIemimebpsS Iognep an KthjWtI{fnepw Iq Irjnsbpdnv KthjW \Sphcpp.

        Cybn {][m\ambpw sshv, _ Iq, sshtm Iq, Nnnq Fobn\w IqWpI hmWnPymSnm\n Irjn sNppWvSv. Chbn Nnnq C\amWv tIcfnse Imemhbvv A\ptbmPyambn, sNehv Ipd coXnbn - Ghpw em`Icambn IrjnsNphm ]nbXv.  

  • Iq IrjnbpsS Bhiyw

        Cp hnpsImWvSncnp P\kwJybv\pkcnv Fmhpw ]qamb t]mjIw Inphm\p `yhkvXp Dev]mZnntWvSXp hfsc AXymhiyamWv. icocn\mhiyamb Duw \IptXmsSmw Xs icnbmb coXnbn amwkyhpw [mXpfpw PohIfpw icocns hfbvv AXymt]nXamWv. \psS \mnse BtcmKy{]iv\n amwkyns Ipdhv Hcp {][m\ {]iv\amWv. Fm Cs kmlNcyn, IrjnsNp ew hnkvXrXampXv km[ya. A[nIw ehpw apX apSpw CmsX Ipd sNehn `yhkvXp Dev]mZnnphm ]nb amamWv IqIrjn. Hcp `y hkvXp F \nebn amwkyns Ipdhv ]cnlcnphm IqWn\v Hcp {][m\ ]phlnphm Ignbpw. B{^nt]mep AhnIknX cmPyfn amwkyns Ipdhp ]cnlcnpXn\mbn temI`y ImjnI kwLS\ (FAO) ip]mi sNbvXnp Ghpw Nnehp Ipd Hcp `W]ZmamWv Iq. amwk `ppIġpw kky `ppIġpw `nphm ]nb GI `WamWnXv. CXns aWhpw cpNnbpw Bscbpw BIjnpXpamWv. {]tal tcmKnIġpw lrZb kw_ amb AkpJ Dhpw Fm {]mbnephpw Iq Hcp DamlmcamWv.

        km[mcWbmbn Fm Irjnpw A[nI ehpw shhpw BhiyamWv. Fm Ipd Afhv ehpw shhpw Dhpw Iq Irjn BZmbIcambn sNphm km[npw. av IrjnIfpambn XmcXaysSpptm Ipd en \npw IqSnb Dev]mZ\w e`npXv Cu IrjnbpsS Hcp {]tXyIXbmWv.

        ap IrjnIfn \np e`np D]tbmKyiq\yamb hkvXpfpw, D]hkvXpfpw (By-product) AZmbIcamb coXnbn Iq Irjnbn D]tbmKnphm km[npw.

        sXmgnenm bphmġpw, hoampw Cu IrjnbneqsS kzbw sXmgn IsWvSphm km[npw. tIcfnse Imemhbn Nnnq Ipd sNehn em`Icambn IrjnsNphm ]nb IqWn\amWv. CXns Irjn coXnIsfpdnpw, hnpev]mZspdnpw D ]cnioe\w ImjnI kIemimebpsS KthjWtI{fnepw Irjn hnm\ tI{fnepw e`npp.    

  • IqWns t]mjI KpW

         \psS icocns hfbvv Bhiyamb hfscb[nIw t]mjI ASnbncnp Hcp kq BlmcamWv Iq. t]mjIaqeyns Imcyn Iq, ]dnIġpw tasebmsWmWv IWmnbnpXv. 70 Intem{Kmw Xqap BtcmKyap Hcmfn\v Bhiyap t]mjIaqey, 100 apX 200 {Kmw DWnb, IqWn \npw e`npp Fp IWvSncnpp. cpNnbnepw, aWnepw, t]mjIKpWnepw, apnp\n¡p Hcp BlmcamWnXv. {][m\ Iq C\fnse t]mjILSI  ]nI 1- sImSpncnpp.

 ]nI 1. Iq C\fnse t]mjILSI (iXam\w)

LSIw

Nnnq

_Iq

sshtm Iq

Pemwiw

89.3

88.1

89.6

amwkyw

2.9

2.8

1.8

sImgpv

0.4

0.2

0.3

APw

5.3

6.3

5.5

\mcv

1.1

1.3

1.7

[mXpehW

1.0

1.3

1.1

Duw (Itemdn)

33.9

34.4

29.2

  • amwkyw  

         IqWn ASnbncnp Ghpw {][m\s t]mjIw, amwkyw AYhm t{]mo\mWv. Cu amwkyn\v Zl\tijn hfsc IqSpXemWv (70 iXam\w). a\pjy icocn\mhiyamb Aant\m A Fmw Xs ASnbnp GI kkymlmcamWv Iq. CXn\m IqWnse amwkys 'kaoIrX amwkyw' (Complete protein) Fp hnfnpp.  

  • Aant\m A

         icocn\p kzambn \nnphm km[nmXpw Fm Ahiyw thWvSXpamb Fv Aant\m A (Essential amino acids) IqWn ASnbnpWvSv. PpP\yamb amwkyn IWvSphcp Nne Ahiy Aant\m Awfpw IqWn DWvSv. ssekn, {S]vtm^m Fo Aant\m A IqWn ASnbncnpXmWv CXn\p amwkXpeyamb cpNnbpw, aWhpw \IpXv. CXn\m IqWns\ 'kky`ppIfpsS Cdn' (Vegetable meat) Fp ]dbpp. Hcp hbn\p Xmsgbp IpnIġv BlmcneqsS e`ntWvS 'lnnUn' F Aant\m Ahpw IqWn ASnbnpWvSv.

         IqWn ASnbncnp Ahiy Aant\m A ]nI 2 sImSpnpWvSv.

{Ia \

Aant\m A

Afhv {Kmw/100 {Kmw amwkyw

1.

eqkn

4.91

2.

sFtkmeqkn

3.13

3.

hmsse

3.77

4.

{S^vtm^m

0.88

5.

ssekn

3.99

6.

{Xtbm\n

5.53

7.

^nss\ Aem\n

3.94

8.

santbm\n

1.31

  • PohIw  

     IqWneSnbnp asmcp {][m\ LSIw  PohIw AYhm hnman\pIfmWv. \psS BtcmKyn\v AXymhiyamb Xbman, ssdt_m^vtfhn, \bmkn, _tbmn, AkvtIm_nIv BknUv, t^mfnIv BknUv Fo '_n' hnman\pIfpsS Hcp IehdbmWv Iq. km[mcWbmbn Hcp ]dnbnepw t^mfnIv BknUv, _tbmn Fo PohI ImWmdn. Fm IqWn Ch cWvSpw ASnbnpWvSv. t^mfnIv BknUv F PohIw, Nph cmWpfpsS (RBC) Dev]mZ\n\v hfsc AXymhiyamWv. AXn\m cpdhv, hnf apXemb tcmK XSbpXn\p Iq hfsc \XmWv.  

  • [mXpehW

        ]e ]dnIfnepw ]ghfnepw ASnbncnpXnt\m IqSpX [mXpehW IqWn ASnbnpWvSv. t^mkv^dkv, s]mmkyw, sNv, Ccpv, Imkyw, aojyw, tkmUnbw apXembhbmWv IqWn ASnbncnp {][m\ [mXpehW.

        IqWn ASnbncnp {][m\ [mXpehW ]nI 3- sImSpnpWvSv.

]nI 3. IqWn ASnbncnp {][m\ [mXpehW

{Ia\

[mXpehW

ann{Kmw/100 {Kmw ]q

1

s]mmkyw

379.30

2

t^mkv^dkv

134.80

3

tkmUnbw

83.70

4

Imkyw

3.30

5

Ccpv

1.50

IqWneSnbncnp Db s]mmkyw tkmUnbw A\p]mXw (4:5:1) ssl sSj D tcmKnIġv hfsc \XmWv.  

  • APw

        IqWn APns Afhv hfsc IpdhmWv. CXv {][m\ambpw sstmP BbnmWv IqWn ASnbncnpXv. cntev hfsc thKw sstmP BKncWw sNsSpp. IqSmsX ssIn, slanskptemkv Fnhbpw APns cq]n IqWneSnbnpWvSv. mpw X\n ]kmcbpw (Free sugar) Hpw Xs ASnbnn  

  • sImgpv  

        IqWn ASnbnp sImgpns Afhv hfsc IpdhmWv. Cu sImgpn sImfkvt{Sm Hpw ASnbnn. CXn\p]Icambn FtKmotdm BWv ASn bncnpXv. CXv hnman 'Un' Bbn icocn\pn ]cnh\w sNsSpp. icocn\mhiyamb A]qcnX ^mn BknUpIfmb eot\mfnv BknUv XpSnb IqWn ASnbnpXn\m cnse sImfkvt{Smfns Afhns\ Ipdbvphm Iq klmbnpp.  

  • \mcpI

        IqWn A[nIw \mcpI ASnbncnpXn\m Zlt\{nbfpsS icnbmb {]h\n\v klmbnpp. IqSmsX lrt{ZmKw, AsUnssknkv, sNdpIpSense Imk, ap IpS tcmK Fnh XSbpXn\pw \mcpI klmbnpp.  

  • Iq - kwcnXmlmcw

        IqWn ASnbnp  mcKpWap [mXpehWfpw \mcpIfpw ssl AknUnn IpdbvpXn\v klmbIcamWv, Duhpw, sImgppw, hfsc IpdhmbXpsImWvSpw \ KpWtabp amwkyhpw, hnman\pIfpw, [mXpehWfpw, \mcpIfpw ASnbnpXpsImWvSpw {]talw, lrZvtcmKw, AanXhw, Db ckw Fo AkpJfphv hfsc tbmPn Hcp `y]ZmamWv Iq. {]taltcmKnIġv CXp Hcp DamlmcambXn\m CXns\ '{]talmcpsS  B\w' (Delight of the diabetic) Fp ]dbpp. \psS Blmcn \nXyhpw Iq DsSpnbm ta¸d AkpJ DWvSmIpXn\p kmyX hfscb[nIw Ipdbpp. CXp sImWvSmWv IqWns\ Hcp kwcnXmlmcw (Protective food) Fp ]dbpXv.

  •  Huj[ KpW

        IqWn ]e Xcnep Huj[KpW ASnbnpXmbn ]T\ shfnsSppp. tcmKImcnIfmb _mIvSocnb, sshdkv, s{]mtmtkmh apXemb AWpsXnsc {]hnp ]e cmkPoh LSIfpw IqWn ASnbnp Xmbn IsWvSnbnpWvSv. t]mfntbm, C^vfphkm Fo tcmK DWvSmp sshdkpIsXnsc {]hnp 'C^tdm' (Interferon) F hkvXp icoc tImifn \nnpXn\p Ignhpw Nnnq ]Xnhmbn Ignphv DWvSmIpXmbn IWvSp]nSnnpWvSv. Pm, CwWvSv, Atacn apXemb cmPyfn \Snb ]T\n \npw Nnnq ]Xnhmbn `nphv Imk hcm\p km[yX hfsc IpdhmsWv  sXfnnpWvSv. Nnebn\w IqWpI ]eXcw tlmantbm acppI DWvSmpXn\v D]tbmKnppWvSv.  

  • Iq F kkyw

        IqWpI kkytemIn Ipan (Fungus) hn`mKnsSp PohnIfmWv. km[mcW kkyġv ]\ndw sImSpp lcnXIw (Chlorophy II) F hhkvXp Chbn CmXn\m kzbw `Ww \nnphm\p Ignhv Chbvn. AXn\m kzw `ymhiyġmbn \noh ssPh hkvXpsftbm av kkyPmesftbm B{ibnpp. Poh\p hkvXpsf B{ibnp Pohnp IpanfpIsf ']mcsskvkv' (Parasites) Fpw, NobpXpw, AgpIpXpamb ssPh hkvXpsf B{ibnp Pohnp IpanfIsf 'kmt{]mss^vkv' (Saprophytes) Fpw hnfnpp. km[mcW KXnbn IqWpIsfmw "kmt{]mss^vkv' hn`mKn sSphbmWv.

        IqWpIfpsS hfmLs ImbnI hfmLw (Vegetative phase), {]Xypev]mZ\ Lw (Reproductive phase), Fv cWvSmbn Xncnmw. ImbnIm hfm Ln IpanfIfpsS ASnm\LSIs 'ssl^' (Hypha) Fp hnfnpp. ]e ssl^I IqSntv hfcpXmWv Ipanfns icoc hkvXp. CXns\ 'ssakoenbw' (Mycelium) Fp ]dbpp. Ch Nne {]tXyI kmlNcyn Hnp hfv tKmfmIrXnbnep sampIfmbn cq]mcsSpp.  ]noSv Ah hfv hepXmbn IqSbpsS cq]n hnIknpp. CXv A{K`mKv ]e hepnepw, cq]nepw, \ndnepap hnpI AYhm kvt]mdpI (Spores) DWvSmbn AXn\pnemWv hnpI DWvSmIpXv. ]e BIrXnbnepw, \ndnepw, hepnepw ImWsSpXmb amwkf`mKamb CXv Iq ]q AYhm {^qnwKv t_mUn (Fruiting body) FdnbsSpp. ChbmWv Iq F t]cn \mw IgnpXv.

  1. kvt]mdpI

  2. apfp hcp kvt]mdpI

  3. ssl^

  4. ssakoenbw

  5. tKmfmIrXnbnep sampI

  6. hnS Iq

  7. kvt]m Dev]mZ\w  

  • IqWns hnhn[`mK

 IqWn\v {][m\ambpw Ap `mKfpWvSv.

 1. IpS (Iymv/ss]enbkv) 2. AdI/]mfnI (KnpI) 3. tamXnc hfbw (B\pekv) 4. XWvSv (ss̸v)  5. Iv (thmh) FnhbmWv.

  •         ss]enbkv/IpS

  •         AdI/Knkv

  •         A\pekv/tamXnchfbw

  •         ss̸v/XWvSv

  •         thmhv/Iv                                 

  •         ssl^/Xp

        IqWns {][m\s `mK C{XbpamsWnepw Cu hyXymka\pkcnv hnhn[ `mKġv hyXykvX cq]t`Z ImWmw.

        Iq Fp ]dbptm \nhnnSn Hcp IpSbpsS cq]amWv \psS a\n hcpXv. IqWpIfn Gdnb ]n\pw Cs\ IpS cq]amWpXv. IpSbpsS BIrXnbnep Cu `mKn\p ss]enbkv Fp ]dbpp. Fm Nnnq km[mcWbmbn IpScq]nep Hcp IqW. AXn\v Hcp NnnbpsS (Oyster) BIrXnbmWpXv. Cu C\w IqWn IpS, XWvSv Ch Xn {]ISamb hyXymkw ImWpIbn. IpS GXmWvSv cWvSvaqv Cv hnkvXmcapXpw amwkfhpambncnpw. XWvSv hfsc sNdpXpw aqnv hsc \ofapXpw IpSbpsS Hcp himbn ]nSnnnpXpambncnpw Cu XWvSns\ 's̸v' Fp ]dbpp. IpSbpsS ASn`mKv N{Ins XWvSpI t]mse ImWp `mKn\v AdI AYhm ]mfnI (Gills) Fp ]dbpp. Cu AdIġpnemWv IqWns hnpI AYhm kvt]mdpI Dev]mZnnsSpXv. Nnebn\w IqWpIfn IpStbmSv tNv XWvSn tamXnc hfbw t]mse Hcp `mKw ImWmw. CXns\ B\qekv Fp]dbpw. thsd Nnebn\w IqWpIfn XWvSns Nphn __nttbm Inttbm BIrXnbn ]cp]cp thmh F `mKw ImWmw. IqWns thcv thmhbvp neqsS Ah hfcp am[yan\pntev t]mIpp. km[mcWKXnbn IpSbpsS apI `mKw sXment]mep Hcp BhcWw sImtWvSm i¡sImtWvSm BhcWw sNbvXncnpw. Acw IqWpI km[mcW KXnbn `Wn\mbn Cu sXmen/ i¡ \ow sNbvXXn\p tijamWv D]tbmKnpXv. Fm Nnnq `Wn\mbn D]tbmKnptm AXns Hcp `mKhpw \ow sNtWvSXn.

        IqWpIfpsS hwih\w Ah Dev]mZnnp kvt]mdpI hgnbmWv. Ch hmbphn¡qSn hym]nv antem acsImpIfntem av hkvXpfntem ]Xnbpp. A\pIqeamb Imemhbn, A\pIqeamb hkvXpfn Ch apfv Xp DWvSmn hoWvSpw hfcpp. Fm Iq Irjn sNptm Iqhnmbn D]tbmKnpXv Xpfn\nv {]tXyIcoXnbn hfnsbSpp 'kvt]m' Ft]cn AdnbsSp Iq hnmWv.  

4. IqWns hnhn[ C\

         temIn GItZiw cWvSmbnctmfw C\w IqWpI `ytbmKyamsWp IWpI ]dbpp. Cybn hnhn[bn\w apIġpw Imemhbvpw A\ptbmPyamb, Dtiw AXv C\w `jytbmKyamb IqWpIfpWvSv. tIcfn hnhn[ t]cpIfn AdnbsSp NnX¡qWpI (sSantmssaknkv), Acoq, ]cpIq, ]nq, sNhnbIq, DpIq apXemb agmefn anepw acpnIfnepw apfp s]mp ]e C\w IqWpIfpw `ytbmKyambhbmWv. Fmepw 20-25 C\ am{Xta hmWnPymSnm\n hnhn[ cmPyfn Irjn sNppq, Irjn sNsSp {][m\ C\w IqWpIfpsS t]cp ]nI 4- sImSpncnpp.

]nI 4. IrjntbmKyamb Iq h

{Ia\

Iq C\w (km[mcW t]cv)

imkv{Xob \maw  

1.

sshv _ Iq

Agaricus sp

2.

Nnnq/ Hmbv sajvdqw

Pleurotus sp

3.

hbvtm Iq/ ]mUnkvt{Sm ajvdqw

Volvariella  / volvaceae

4.

]mIq/ an¡n ajvdqw

Calocybe indica

5.

jntv ajvdqw

Lentinus edodes

6.

hn  ajvdqw

Flammulina velutipes

7.

hpUvCb/ Pohnjv Cb

Auricularia polytricha

8.

tIm{]n\kv ajvdqw

Coprinus comatus

9.

\tatIm ajvdqw

Pholiota nemeko

10.

KmU Pbv

Stropharia ruggosannulata

11.

knh Cb

Tremella fuciformis

temIn samw Dev]mZnnp Iq C\fn Hmw m\w sshv _ ajvdqan\pw (40%) cWvSmw m\w NnnqWn\pamWv (24%).

        Cybn sshv _ Iq (White button mushroom), Nnnq (Oyster mushroom), sshtm Iq (Paddy straw mushroom), ]m¡q (Milky mushroom) Fo \mepamWv Irjn sNbvXphcp {]m[m\ C\.  Cu C\ hnPbIcambn Irjn sNpXn\p {]tXyIw am[yafpw, hyXykvXamb coXnIfpw, \nnX Imemhbpw BhiyamWv.  Cu \mep C\ Irjn sNpXn\v Bhiyamb kmlNcy ]nI 5- sImSpncnpp.

]nI 5. hnhn[ C\w IqWpI Irjn sNm
Bhiyamb kmlNcy

{Ia\

Iq C\

IrjnbpsS Imebfhv (Znhkw)

Aco Cuw (%)

ImbnI hf

NqSv (oC) Iq Dev]mZ\w

1.

sshv _ Iq

90

85-95

21-23

14-15

2.

Nnnq

45 

75-90

20-30

20-30

3.

sshtm Iq

25

80-90

24-30

30-35

4.

]mIq

60

60-85 

25-35

25-35

 

           Cu \mev C\fpw tIcfn Irjn sNppsWvSnepw sshv _ ajvdpw Irjn sNWsan Iq Dev]mZ\ kabp NqSv 14-15 skjyv Bbn \nb{nWw CXn\v h apXapSv thWvSXpsImWvSv km[mcW IjIv CXv Irjn sNphm km[npIbn.  tIcfn cWvSv hInS I\nI  (mm o In\n, sshIpWvUw ajvdpw ^mw) sshv _ ajvdpw Irjn sNppWvSv.  Nnnq, sshtm Iq, ]m¡q Fo C\ tIcfnse Imemhbvp Irjn sNphm tbmPnsXnepw Dev]mZ\aX hbvtm IqWn\v hfsc IpdhmWv (10%).  NnnqWn\v 50-100% Dev]mZ\aXbpWvSv. ]m¡q Irjn Cybne[nIw {]Ncnnn.  Fm Nnnq t]mse ]m¡qWpw tIcfn hnPbIcambn Irjn sNphm km[npw Fv ]T\ kqNnnpp.

       Cp tIcfnse GXv Imemhbnepw hfsc em`Icambn Irjn sNphm ]nb C\w NnnqWmWv.  Ign Hcp Zim_vZambn Cybn Nnnq Irjn hfscb[nIw hym]nnpWvSv.

5.Nnnq C\

       qtdmkv (Pleurotus) P\pkns] C\w IqWpI NnnqWpI F t]cn AdnbsSpp.  Ccw IqWpIġv NnnbpsS BIrXnbpXpsImWvSmWv Ch NnnqWpI (Oyster mushroom) F t]cn AdnbsSpXv. Cu C\ns IqsS Hcp {]tXyI coXnbnemWv XWvSpambn LSnnncnptm, NnnqWn Hcp himbnmWv XWvSns XpSw.  Cu IqWpI km[mcWbmbn, DWpXpw NobpXpamb, XSnIfnepw acppIfnepw hfcp C\w IqWpIfmWv.  qtdmkv P\pkn GItZiw \mev]tXmfw kv]ojnkpI DWvSv.  Chsbmw `ytbmKya. hfsc amwkfambXpw Fm ZrVXbpXpamb GItZiw 14 kv]ojnkpI am{XamWv `ytbmKyambnpXv.  aph hfsc InbpXpw tXmept]mepXpw (Leathery) Bbncnpw.  Acw C\ hnjanmhbmsWnepw `ytbmKya. 

      
Cv IrjnsNsSp {][m\ Nnnq kv]qjnkpI Xmsg sImSpncnpp.

  1. qtdmkv tkmPImPp    (Pleurotus sojarcaju)

  2. qtdmkv kn{Snt\mss]entbkv (Pleurotus citrinopileatus) 

  3. qtdmkv Pam (Pleurotusjamar)  

  4. qtdmkv tImWptImntb (Pleurotus cornucopiae)  

  5. qtdmkv Hmkv{Stbkv (Pleurotus ostereatus)  

  6. qtdmkv ^vfm_tkv (Pleurotus flabellatus)  

  7. qtdmkv s]tembvSkv (Pleurotus petaloides)  

  8. qtdmkv mnkv (Pleurotus platypus)  

  9. qtdmkv Cbkv (Pleurotus oeas)  

  10. qtdmkv ^vtfmdnUm (Pleurotus florida)

  11. qtdmkv kmnUkv (Pleurotus sapidus)

  12. qtdmkv H]jnb (Pleurotus opuntiae)

  13. qtdmkv Fcnn (Pleurotus erinji)

  14. qtdmkv UnnUntbmknkv (Pleurotus decitidiodis)

           Cu C\sfmw Xs hfsc ZrVhpw Cdnp Xpeyamb Inbpw cpNnbpw, aWhpw DhbmWv.  

  • qtdmkv tkmPImPp  

       Cu Iq Fw-2 (M-2) F t]cnepw AdnbsSpp.  tIcfn BZyambn Irjn sNbvX IqWn\amWnXv. Cfw Nmc\ndw Ie sh \ndap Ccw IqWpI arZpXztadnbXpw hfsc cpNnbpXpamWv. Ch Irjn sNptm hnfhv Inm 18-22 Znhkw thWvSnhcpw.  CXns hnfhpw IqSpXemWv.  800 {Kmw apX 1 Intem{Kmw hsc IqWpI 750 {Kmw sshtm XSn \npw InpXmWv.  tIcfnse Imemhbn Fm epw Fm kabpw Irjn sNphm ]nb C\amWnXv.  

  • qtdmkv kn{Snt\mss]entbkv.  

        kn.H.1 (CO-1) F t]cn AdnbsSp Cu C\w IqWpI Xqsh \ndapXpw arZpXzapXpamWv.  Cu C\w IrjnsNptm 15-17 Znhkfn hnfhv InnpSpw.  hnfshSpns Imcyn Cu C\w tkmP ImPphnt\msSmw \n¡pp.  

  • qtdmkv P\m

        \ arZpXzhpw I\hpap Cu IqWpIġv shfp \ndamWv. Irjnp Imebfhv an\sf At]nv hfsc IpdhmWv FXv CXnssbmcp \ KpWamWv.  10-12 ZnhkamIptm hnfhv InnpSpw. Hcp XSn \npw GItZiw Hcp Intem{Kmw hnfhv Inpw.  

  • qtdmkv Hmbv{Stbkv

       hfsc  XWp Imeh CjvSsSp Cu IqWn\w ssltdv {]tZin\v ]nbbn\amWv. Nmc\ndw Ie hbev \ndap Ccw Iq Irjn sNptm hnfshSpv XpSm 18-20 ZnhksaSppw.  km[mcW Imemhbn hfscpdv hnfhp am{Xta Cu C\n \npw InpIbpp.

  • qtdmkv ^vfm_tkv

        \ shfp \ndap Cu C\w IqWpIfn \nv hnfhp Inm 1618 Znhkw thWvSn hcpw.  XmcXtay\ hnfhp Ipd Cu C\n \npw 400-500 {Kmw hsc Iq Hcp XSn \npw InpXmWv.  

  • qtdmkv mnkv

        \ shfp \ndhpw arZpXzhpw kmam\yw IntbdnbXpamWv Cubn\w Iq. Hcp XSn \npw 500-600 {Kmw hsc hnfhv Inp Cu C\w Irjn sNptm hnfshSpphm 12-14 Znhkw thWvSn hcpw.  

  • qtdmkv Cbkv.

        ]nv \ndapXpw \ hepapXpw I\tadnbXpamb Cu IqWn\w F.]n.sI-1 (APK-1) F t]cn AdnbsSpp.  CXn\v av Nnnq C\tfm \mcv IqSpXembXp sImWvSv Ffpn NobmIpIbn. km[mcW apdnbnse Dujvamhn cWvSp aqp Znhkw hsc tISpIqSmsX kqnpIbpw sNmw. 12-13 Znhkfn hnfshSpp \Smw. 750-850 {Kmw IqWpI hsc Hcp XSn \nv e`npw.  

  • qtdmkv ^vtfmdnU

        \ hephpw arZpXzhpw shfp \ndaphbpamWv Ccw IqWpI. ap IqWn\sf At]nv \ XWp ImemhbmWv Cu IqWpIġnjvSw. Cu C\w Irjn sNptm hnfshSpv XpSm 18-20 Znhkw thWw. Hcp XSn \npw 750-900 {Kmw  hsc hnfhv e`npw.  

  • A\

        CXv Hcp kcbn\w IqWmWv. tIcf ImjnI kIemimebn \nv DcnncnsSp Cu C\n\v t^mdnUpI, hWvSpI Fo IoSġpw ss{Stma tcmKn\pw {]Xntcm[ inbpWvSv.  shfp \ndap Cu C\w IqWpI Npcpnb Imebfhn (10-11 Znhkw) hnfhv e`npXmWv.  

           ta¸d C\fn tkmP ImPp, (Fw-2), kn{Snt\mss]entbkv (kn.H-1), Cbkv (F.]n.sI-1), ^vtfmdnU, A\ Fo C\fmWv Ctm tIcfnepw ZntWybnepw hmWnPymSnm\n Irjnmbn D]tbmKnpXv. ImjnI hnfIsftmse Iq Irjnbnepw hnhn[bn\ Irjn sNpXv hnfhv IqpXn\pw tcmK, IoS _m[ IpdbvpXn\pw klmbnpw.  

6.Iq imebpsS \nmWw.

         Iq Irjnbn \hnfhv InpXn\v, Ipd kqcy{]Imihpw Ipd NqSpw \ Cuap Acohpw \ hmbpkmchpw BhiyapfmWv. KmlnImhiy n\p am{Xw IqIrjn sNpIbmsWn s_pI Xmdmn t\cnv kqcy{]Imiw ]Xnm, hoSns hcmbntem atm kqnmhpXmWv. Fm hymhkmbnImSnm\n Nnnq Irjn sNptm AXn\mbn Hcp Iq ime (Mushroom  Shed) DWvSmtWvSXv BhiyamWv. CXv Iq hfbvv Bhiyamb NqSpw Aco Cuhpw \nb{nphm klmbnpw.                                       

IqWns hfsb ASnm\amn Iq Irjnsb cWvSv Lambn Xncnmw.

1. ImbnI hfm Lw (Spawn running stage)

2. Iq DXv]mZ\ Lw (Cropping stage)

           Cu cWvSv  Ln\pw Bhiyamb NqSpw Aco Cuhpw hyXykvXamIbm Iq imebn cWvSv apdnI thWw. Hcp apdn ImbnI hfm apdn AYhm kvt]m dnwKv dqw (Spawn running room) asmcp Iq DXv]mZ\ apdn AYhm hnfshSpp apdn.  AYhm t{ImnwKv dqw (Cropping room). ew IqSpX DsWvSn cWvSmw hnfshSpp apdnbpw  `mKoIambn tISph s_pI kqnphm Hcp knIv apdnbpw (Sick room) DXv \XmWv.  

  • ew XncnsSp  

        t\cnp kpcy{]Imiw G¡m ew XncsSpm imebnse NqSv hfscb[nIw Ipdbvphm km[npw. AXpt]mse imeI Ingp ]Snmdmbn ]WnbpXp NqSp Ipdbvphm klmbnpw.  ImensmgppI, Itmp IpgnI XpSnbhbpsS ASpmbn imeI \nncpXv. ip Pent\sd e`yXbpw IWnseSpWw.  

  • imebpsS hnkvXow  

        icmicn {]XnZn\ D]mZ\s ASnm\amn imeIġp hepw \nbnmw.  {]XnZn\ D]mZ\w ASnm\amnbp imebpsS hnkvXow Xmsg sImSpnpWvSv. 

{]Xonp {]XnZn\ D]mZ\w (Kg)

hnkvXow.

 

kvt]m dnKv apdn ( m2 )

t{ImnwKv apdn (m2)

1

5

20

4*2 =8

13.5*8 = 40.5

27*6 = 162

4*2 = 8

13.5*3 =40.5

27*6 = 162

 

 

 

 

 

 

         ssltdv t]mse XWp Imemh D efn C{Xbpw hnkvXoap Iq imeIfn Ccnbne[nIw Iq hoXw {]XnZn\w D¸mZnnphm km[npw.  

  • ime \nmWw.

       Ghpw Ipd apX apSn CuSp \n¡p Iq imeI \nnphm {ianWw. CXn\mbn AXmXp es Imemhbv\pkcnv ta¡qc DWvSmphm\mbn sXtme, ]\tbme, ]pctabp ]pv, Bkvt^mīnIv jov (Asfoltic Sheet) Fnh D]tbmKnmw. Bkv_tmkv, tIm{Iov apXembh ta¡qcbmbn D]tbmKnm Iq imebvqn NqSp IqSpXembn A\p`hsSpw. AXn\m NqSp Ipdhmb ssltdp t]mep {]tZifn am{Xta Ccw ta¡qc D]tbmKnmhq.

        Xd\ncn \npw 60 sk.an Dbcn H CjvSnI I\n Ac`nn sIWw.  AXn\p apIfn 2 ao Dbcn XqWpI \mn Hme sImtWvSm atm sIWw. CXp NqSp {IaoIcnphmhpw, kqcy {]Imiw XSbphm\pw hmbp kmcw Inphm\pw klmbnpw. Ac `nnbpsS apIfn s{^bnapI \mn Ccpp he ]nSnnv AXns Nppw HmesIn adm Fen XpSnb PohnIfpsS ieyw Hgnhmm klmbnpw.  ta¡qcbvv Dtiw \mepao Dbcw thWw.  AXn\p Xmsg Hcp hymPqcbpw (^mkv koenwKv) DWvSmnbm Dujvamhv {IaoIcnpXv FfpamWv.  NqSp {IaoIcnpXn\p imebpsS ta¡qcbvp HmebmWv \Xv. Fm \ ag Inp efn Hme tanens \ne\n¸v IpdhmbXn\m Bkvt^mīnv jov D]tbmKnpXv \XmWv. imebvpn {]thinpXn\mbn 2x0.75 ao hepn hmXnepWvSmWw.

       Iq imebpsS `nn CjvSnI sImWvSp sInSXmsWn \ hmbp kmcn\mbn apdnbpsS hepa\pkcnv FXn ZniIfn shntedpIfpw/ P\meIfpw (0.6x0.3 m) FkvIvtlmv ^m\pIfpw ]nSnnWw. Hcp apdnv Ghpw IpdXv cWvSv ^m\pI BImw.  Hcp ^m `nnbn 78 ASn Dbcnepw, thsdmscw `nnbn aqSn Dbcnepw apdnpntev hmbp IShw Xncnv ]nSnnWw.

       Iq imeIfpsS Xdbn 10 sk.an. L\n BpaW hncnv \\p sImSp pXv apdnIfn Cuw \ne\nm\pw NqSpIpdbvm\pw klmbnpw. knav sNbvX XdbmsWn apdnbn aqv sk.ao. L\n shw sIn\nnbpw Cuw \ne \nmw.

        Iq imebpsS kvt]mdnwKv apdnbn kqcy{]Imiw HpwXs Bhiyan. Fm Cu apdnbn \ hmbpkmcw BhiyamWv.  t{ImnwKv apdnbnepw t\cnp kqcy{]Imiw ]Xnm ]mSn.  IqSpX kqcy{]Imiw Gm IqWpIġp \ndamw DWvSmIpw. shfp \ndap IqWpI Cfw Nmc\ndhpw, Cfw Nmc\ndap IqWpI ISpwNmc\ndhpamIpw.  Fm Ah `npXpsImWvSv bmsXmcptZmjhpw C.

       t{ImnwKv apdnbn IqSpX hmbpkmcw thWw.  Hchkcnepw Im_ ssU HmIvsskUns km{X 30 iXam\n IqSmXncnm {inWw.  IqSnbm AXv Iq Dev]mZ\s kmcambn _m[npw.  CXv HgnhmpXn\p thWvSn hmbp kmcw DdmWw.  kvt]m hfm apdntbm NqSp IpdhphbmbncnWw Dev]mZ\apdn.

        _lp\ne XpIfp sj^pI DWvSmn Iqs_pI AXn ASpn shbvpXv ew em`nm klmbnpw.  XSnsImWvSp sj^pIfmsWn s]bnp sNbvXncnWw Asæn s_pI \\bvptm shw hoWv XSn s]sv {Zhnpt]mIpw.

       sj^pIġp ]Icambn sNehp Ipd thsdmcp amhpw sNmw.  XSnsImtWvSm I\znsImtWvSm D XqWpI Xdbn Ipgnnv cWvSv XqWn\p IpdpsI thsdmcp XSntbm Intbm ]nSnnv AXn sNdnb sImfppI 60 sk.ao. AIen ]nSnnv s_pI AXn XqnbnSmw. IpdpsI ]nSnnm XSnI/InI cWvSv XpIfmbn 1 ao CSshfnbn ]nSnnm IqSpX s_pI XqnbnSm km[npw Cu coXnbn sNehp IpdbptXmsSmw \ hmbpkmcw Inpw.  

7.Irjn coXnI

  • am[yaw

Nnnq Irjnv km[mcWbmbn D]tbmKnv hcp am[yaw sshtmemWv.  Fm skptemkpw, enn\pw IqSpX ASnbncnp ap am[yafpw Nnnq Irjnv thWvSn D]tbmKnmw.  apIrjnIfn \np e`np D]hkvXpfmb Icpn NWvSn, IapIn ]mf, DWnb ASbvmtmSv, sXns sImXpv, sXn IpebpsS AhinjvS, Hme, aS, sISn, ssIXbpsS DWnb CeI ]pv, DWnb CeI ]pv, DWnnb hmgS, AdsmSn, F\bpsS NWvSn apXembh Iq Irjnv D]tbmKnmhpXmWv. Fm IqSpXembn D]tbmKnpXv sshtm BWv.

        \ BZmbIcamb hnfhv e`npXn\p \ sshtm thWw  D]tbmKn phm. Hcp hjn IqSpX ]gap sshtm D]tbmKncpXv, kz \ndap sshtm (Golden yellow Coloured straw) D]tbmKnm IqSpX hnfhv e`npw.  

  • Iqhnv.

       Iq Irjnmhiyamb hnv 'kvt]m' (Spawn) F t]cnednbsSpp.  imkv{Xob coXnbn {]tXyIw Xmdmnb [m\y am[yaambn D]tbmKnv IpnIfntem ]mbvpIfntem hfnsbSp IqWns XpfmWv kvt]m F t]cn AdnbsSpXv.  

  • AWp\ioIcWw

BZyambn Iq Irjnv D]tbmKnp sshtm AWp\ioIcWw sNWw.  CXv cWvSp coXnbn sNmhpXmWv. 

1.  Bhnbn ]pgpn AWp \ioIcWw sN (Steam Sterilization). 

2. cmkhkvXp D]tbmKnv AWp \ioIcWw sN (Chemcial Sterilization)  

1. Bhnbn ]pgpn AWp\ioIcWw sN

        sshtm 12-16 aWnq kabw shůn \Xmbn IpXnm hbvWw.  sshtm 5-10 sk.ao \ofn sNdnb IjWfmbn apdnsSppw IpXnm  hbvmw.  IpXnpXn\mbn D]tbmKnp shw ipambncnWw. shůn\v AXzapsWvSn Hcpen shůn 5-8 {Kmw hsc Ipmbw tNmhpXmWv.  sshtm shůn IpXnXn\ptijw 45 an\nv kabw Xnfbvp shůntem Bhnbvp shtm ]pgpnsbSpWw. Bhnbn ]pgpnsbSppXn\mbn Hcp ]m{Xn Aev]w shsaSpv AXn \mtem Atm NncItfm aqp\menp L\ap XSnItfm CSWw. AXn\papIfnembn shůn IpXn sshtm shv ]noSv NqSmWw.  Bhn hcphm XpSptm ]m{Xw \mbn aqSn hbvWw.  Cs\ 45 an\nv kabw sshtm ]pgpWw. ]pgpnb sshtm ]pdsSpv A[nIPew hmp t]mIpXn\p XWppXn\pw hbvWw.  

  • s_v Xmdm.

        t]mfno Ihdn sshtmepw Iqhnpw HnShnv \ndv XmdmnsbSppXmWv s_Uv Ft]cn AdnbsSpXv. s_p XmdmpXn\v 60 sk.ao. \ofhpw 35 sk.ao hoXnbpw 150-200 tKPv Inbpap t]mfno IhdpItfm Syq_pItfm BWv km[mcWbmbn D]tbmKnpXv. C{Xbpw hepap Hcp Ihdn IrjnsNpXn\mbn GItZiw Hcp Intem{Kmw DWnb sshtmepw Acpn/ ]mbvv (125 {Kmw) Iq hnpw BhiyamWv.

        s_v XmdmpXn\p ap]v CXn\mbn D]tbmKnp Fm km[\fpw ssIIfpw sUtm D]tbmKnv IgpIWw. Ipnbntem ]mbvntem Ccnp Iq hnpIsf ]pdsSpv ]InbnSm\mbn Hcp t{Sbpw I\w Ipd Inbpw, sUtmtfm kv]ncntm D]tbmKnv IgpInsbSpWw. hnv Ipnbnencpv ]pdsSpptm, In ]nSnnpWvsSn, ssIsImWvSv s]mSnv D]tbmKnWw.

        s_v XmdmpXn\v AWp \ioIcWw sNbvX sshtm apdnv IjWfmbntm 15 sk.ao. hymkap sNdnb NpmSpIfmnb Anbmtbm t]mfnn Ihdn 5 sk.ao L\n \ndbvWw. AXn GItZiw 10-15 {Kmw (Hcp ]nSn) Iq hnv sshtmen\p apIfn hrmIrXnbn t]mfno Ihdns AcnIneqsS CSWw. hoWvSpw sshtm \ndbvpIbpw hnv CSpIbpw sNWw. sshtm \ndbvptm CSbvv hnShnmsX ssI sImWvSv s_pI \Xpt]mse Aan sImSpv Hmtcm Anbpw \ndbvWw. Cs\ Ahkm\s An \ndtijw Iq hnnv t]mfno Ihdns Xpd `mKw aqSn \q sImWvSv \mbn sIn Iq imebnep ImbnI hfmapdnbn XqnbnSWw.  

  • AdsmSn D]tbmKnv s_v Xmdm

        ]eXcw acfpsS AdsmSnbn Iq Irjn sNmw. Fmepw d_ XSnbpsS AdsmSnbmWv Ghpw tbmPnXv.  sshtm ]mIsSpnsbSppXpt]mse AdsmSnbpw ]mIsSpnsbSpv IqIrjnbmbn D]tbmKnWw.

        AdsmSn BZyw 36-48 aWnq kabw sshůn IpXnphv ]noSv shw DunIfXn\ptijw Inbp XqWnbntem, Nmntem Ingnbmn sInsbSpv 45 an\nv kabw Bhnbn hv ]pgpnsbSpv AWp\ioIcWw sNWw. cmk hkvXp D]tbmKnv AWp\ioIcWw sNphm Ingn sInb AdsmSn cmkemb\nbn 24-36 aWnq kabw IpXnp hbvWw.

        Cs\ AWp \ioIcWw sNbvX AdsmSn Ingnbgnv 60 iXam\w Cuw BIpXphsc DWnsbSpWw. CXn Imkyw I_tWv (tNmps]mSn) 20 {Kmw, Hcp Intem{Kmw AdsmSnbn F Afhn Ien s_p XmdmpXn\mbn D]tbmKnmw.

        Fmcw Nnnq C\fpw AdsmSnbn em`Icambn IrjnsNphm km[npIbn. ^vtfmdnUm, ko. Hm-1 FnhbmWv AdsmSn IrjnsNphm ]nb C\.

  • hmgS am[yan s_v Xmdm

       sshtm t]mse Xs, Nnnq Irjnv am[yaambn, hmgSbpw D]tbmKnmhpXmWv. hmgS sNdnb IjWfmbn apdnv \hw DWnsbSpWw. Cu IjW shůnenv 45 an\nv kabw Xnfnv AWp\ioIcWw sNbvXp s_v Xmdmm\mbn D]tbmKnmw.  

  • IqWns hfmL

      s_v XmdmnbXpapX hnfshSpp hsc IqWns hfsb cWvSv Lfmbn Xncnmw.

1.  ImbnIhfmLw (Spawn Running Stage) 

2. Iq Dev]mZ\Lw AYhm hnfshSppLw (Cropping Stage).  

1.ImbnIhfm Lw

      IqWns sh \ndnep Xp (Mycelium) sshtmen (am[yan) ]Sp hfcpXns\bmWv ImbnI hf AYhm kvt]m dnwKv Fp]dbpXv. kvt]m dnwKv ]qnbmIpXn\v 12-18 Znhk thWvSn hcpw. Fm CXv, D]tbmKnp IqWn\w kvt]mkns aqv, sshtmens KpWw, sshtmense Cuw, apdnbnse NqSv, Aconse Cuw F ]e LSIsf B{ibnncnpw.  

2. Iq Dev]mZ\/hnfshSpv Lw

      kvt]m dnwKv ]qnbmnbXn\ptijap LsbmWv Iq Dev]mZ\ Lw AYhm hnfshSpp Lw Fp ]dbpXv. kvt]m dnwKv ]qnbmbm s_pIfn t]mfno Ih \ow sNbvXp Dev]mZ\ apdnbntemv amWw. Ih amnb ASp Znhkw apX Imemh A\pkcnv Znhkhpw Htm ctWvSm XhW t\cnb tXmXn s_pIfn sNdnb Cuw \ne\n¡ coXnbn anXambn \\bvWw. agmev cWvSp Znhkn Hcn hoXw \\m aXnbmIpw. Hcp ImcWhimepw s_pIfn A[nIw Cuw DWvSmIphm ]mSn. A[nIw Cuw DWvSmbm Infnp hcp IqWpIfpsS IS`mKv shw sIn\nv _mIvSocnb _m[nv Ah AgpInt]mIphm  km[yXbpWvSv. IqSmsX IqSpX Cuw, Nne kmlNcyfn, IqWn\v Cfw a\ndw DWvSmIpXn\pw  kqnphbvm\p Ignhv (Kriping Quality) IpdbvpXn\pw Ffpw tISmIpXn\pw ImcWamIpw. AXpt]mse s_n Bhiyn\v Cuansæn DWvSmIp sampI Icnv DWntmIpXn\pw hnfhv Imcyambn IqdbpXn\pw ImcWamIpw. AXmbXv t{ImnwKv apdnbnepw s_pIfnepw Bhiyn\pam{Xw Ftmgpw Cuw DWvSmbncnWw. AtXmsSmw Cu kabv apdnIfn \ hmbp kmchpw thWw. Cs\ kqnm 2-4 Znhkfn s_ns \mep hifn \npw IqWns apIpf {]XysSpw. ASp Znhkw sampI hfv hepXmIpw. Atm hnfshSpv \Smw. hnfshSpptm XWvSns ASn`mKw icnbmbn apdnsSpphm {inWw. hnfshSp tijw  hoWvSpw shw kvt{] sNbvXv s_pI kqnpIbmsWn HcmgvNIgnv cWvSmw hnfshSppw hoWvSpw HcmgvNIgnv  aqmw hnfshSppw \SmhpXmWv.

        aqmw hnfshSpn\ptijw s_pIfpsS {]Xew 2 sk.ao. L\n \ aqbp In D]tbmKnv sNn amn hoWvSpw \\ XpSm Ipdv hnfhv IqSn e`npw.

        sshtmen Irjn sNptm Nne {][m\bn\w NnnqWpIfpsS hnfshSpp kabw ]nI 6- sImSpncnpp.

]nI 6. hnhn[ Nnnq C\fpsS hnfshSpp kabw

{Ia

\

 

Iq C\w

 

kvt]m dnwKv kabw (Znhkw)

hnfshSpp kabw (Znhkw)

 

Hmw 
hnfshSpv

cWvSmw hnfshSpv

aqmw hnfshSpv

1.

tkmP ImPp

14-20

18-25

25--35

35-45

2.

kn.H.1

10-16

16--22

22-30

30-40

3.

^vtfmdnUm

14-20

18-26

26-35

35-50

         AdsmSnbn Irjn sNptm ^vtfmdnU, kn.Hm-1 Fo C\ BZys hnfshSpn\v 20-30 Znhk FSppw. AXpt]mse Hcp s_n \npw cWvSp aqv amkw hsc CShnnShn IqWpWvSmbn smWvSncnpw. hnfshSpns Imcyn sshtmen \nv e`np AtXbfhv hnfhpw e`npw.  

  • hnfshSpv

       IqWns sampI \Xmbn hnSp hcptm hnfshSpv \SWw. AXmbXv IqWn \nv kvt]mdpI ]pIt]mse ]dpt]mIpXn\p apmbn hnfshSpWw. hnfshSpptm ASn`mKp XtWvSmSp tNv ]dnsSpphm {inWw. Asæn s_n Ahtijnp IqWns NphSp `mKw AgpIn _mIvSocnbaqeap AWp_m[ DWvSmIpXn\p ImcWamIpw. ssIsImWvSv IqWpIsf ]dnsSpXn\ptijw NphSp`mKv ]nnSnncnp sshtmepw apw InsImWvSv apdnp amn \on IfbWw. AXn\ptijw 150-200 {Kmw hoXw sNdnb t]mfno IhdpIfnemn \mbn ko sNbvXv hn¸\ \Smw.

        km[mcW Aco Dujvamhn Hcp Znhkw hscbpw, {^nUvPn 4-5 Znhkw hscbpw {^okdn  ( 0oc-) 2-3 BgvNhscbpw tISpIqSmsX kqnp shbvmw.

hnfshSpp ]qnbmb s_pIfpsS D]tbmKw

        Iq hnfshSpp Ignv Ahtijnp s_pI ]cnkcv InSm AXv ]eXcw IoSfpw, tcmKmWpfpw hfp hnm\p eamIpw. CXn\m hnfshSpn\p tijw s_pIsf F{Xbpw thKw ampXv \XmWv. Cu s_pI \ KpWap ssPhhfamb anctmv DWvSmphm D]tbmKnmw.  

9. IqIrjnbpsS kmnIhi

         Hcp sNdpInS ImjnI hyhkmbsa \nebn Hcp Znhkw ]p Intem{Kmw hoXw Nnnq Dev]mZnnp Hcp bqWnn\v thWvSn hcp hchv sNehv IWpI Xmsg sImSpncnpp. Hcp hjn apqdp Znhk IqWpev]mZnnmw FmWv ChnsS IWmnbncnpXv.

A. aqe[\ apX apSv

1.  Iqime \nmWw (Fhpw Ipd apX apSn AXmXp ep e`yamb km[\ D]tbmKnv) 

15,000.00

2. sshtm IpXnm\pw, Xnfnm\pw thWvS ]m{X

2,000.00  

3. kvs{]b, _v, Inhe apXembh 

1,000.00  

 BsI                                  

18,000.00

aqe[\apXapSn\v 12% hmjnI ]eni         2,160.00

samw  (A)                                           20,160.00

 B. {]h\ aqe[\w

1.   sshtm (6000 kg)

10,500.00  

2.   Iq hnv (3000 Ipn)

36,000.00  

3.   t]mfno Ih (80 kg)

6,000.00  

4.   AWp \ioIcWw sNphm C\ sNehv

4,000.00  

5.   IoS\min\n, Ipan \min\n

500.00

6.   Iqen

9,000.00  

7.   CXc sNehpI

500.00

8.   hnev]\ sNehpI

1,000.00  

     BsI

67,500.00  

{]h\ apX apSn\p 18% hmjnI ]eni  (3 amkn\v)       3,038.00

samw  (B)                                                    70,538.00

 samw Dev]mZ\ sNehpI (A+B)                                 90,698.00  

 C.      hmjnI AmZmbw

1.   Iq hnp hchv 3000 In.{Kmw @ Rs.60/kg

1,80,000.00  

2.   Dev]mZ\ sNehpI

90,698.00   

  hmjnI AmZmbw 

89,698.00  

(* Hcp s_n \np 600-1000 {Kmw hsc hnfhv e`npsanepw Ipd hnfhmb 500 {Kmw am{Xta IWnseSpnpq. AXn\m Hcp Intem{Kmw Iq Dev]mZnnpXn\v Hcp Ipn kvt]m thWvSn hcpw.

        Nnnq Irjn em`Icambn sNmhp Hcp sNdpInS ImjnI hyhkmbamWv. Cu Irjn BZmbIcamsWv ta¸d IWpIfn \npw hyamIpw.  

10.  hnpev]mZ\w

        Iq Irjnmhiyamb hnv 'kvt]m' F t]cn AdnbsSpp.  imkv{Xob coXnbn {]tXyIw Xmdmnb am[ya IpnIfntem, ]mbvpIfntem \ndv AXn IqWns Xp hfnsbSppXmWv 'kvt]m' Fp ]dbpXv. Iq Irjnbn Fhpw {][m\w ipamb apnb Xcw kvt]m e`yampI FXmWv. IqWns Dev]mZ\w  \Xcw kvt]mWns\ B{ibnncnpp.

        Iq hnpI Itmfn hn]WnbnepsWvSnepw AhbpsS e`yX hfsc IpdhmWv. hymhkmbnI ASnm\n Iq Irjn sNptm IqSpX Iq hnp IpnI/]mbvpI thWvSn hcpw. Ch Fm kabpw e`yamIpXpw, Ahsb hmnv Irjn sNp efntev sImWvSp hcpXpw {]bmkamWv. Hcp Ipn/]mbvv hnn\v 10-15 cq]bmWv hne. Fm kzambn 6.5 cq] sNehn Dev]mZnnphm km[npw.

        amXr hnv (Mother spawn) D]tbmKnmWv Iq hnv DWvSmnsbSppXv. CXv IpnIfn KthjW tI{fn \ntm AwKoIrXw D av m]\fn \ntm hmnmhpXmWv Asæn \ BtcmKyap IqWpIfn \nv IĨ sNbvXpw FSpmhpXmWv.

        tNmfw, tKmXv, s\v apXemb [m\yfmWv Iq hnpev]mZ\n\p am[yaambn km[mcWbmbn D]tbmKnpXv. tNmftam, tKmXtm D]tbmKnptm Ah 3-4 aWnq kabhpw, s\mWv D]tbmKnpsXn 8-12 aWnq kabhpw shůn IpXnphbvWw. ]noSv ]IpXn thhmIpXphsc [m\yw ]qgpnsbSpWw. Iq hnpWvSmpXn\mbn [m\yw thhnpXns tXmXv hfsc {][m\amWv. [m\yns D`mKw \mbnv shncnWw. Fm s]mn tNmdmbnv ]pdv hcnIbpacpXv. thhv IqSntmbm BZys \mev Znhktv IqWns Xp \mbn hfcpsanepw ]noSv hnv tISmbntmIpXn\p km[yX hfscqSpXemWv. AtX kabw thhp Ipdm Xp icnv hfcpIbpan.

        ]mIn\p thhnsSp [m\y XWpphm\pw, shw hmp t]mIphm\pw A\phZnWw. Hcp sNdnb Cuw [m\yfn Dtm Imkyw Im_tWv F cmkhkvXp Hcp Intem{Kmw [m\yn\v 30-40 {Kmw F tXmXn \mbn CfWw. {]kvXpX[m\yw IgpInbpWnb qtmkv (I.V) IpnIfn apm `mKw hsc \ndbvWw.

        qtmkv IpnIġp ]Icw t]mfns{]en IhdpIfpw D]tbmKnmhpXmWv. CXn\mbn 22 x 18 sk.ao. henap IhdpI, Hcp Ih asmcp Ihdnemn Cchdmbn D]tbmKnpXmWv \Xv. CXn Imkyw Im_tWpambn tNnfnb [m\yw ]IpXn`mKw hsc (250 {Kmw) \ndbvWw. ]noSv Ihdns hmbv`mKw Npcpn ]n.hn.kn ss]v sImWvSpWvSmnbXpw 3/4" \ofapXpamb Hcp hfbneqsS ISn hmbv `mKw \nhn ]nntep aSn d _mUpsImWvSv apdpnsIWw. Ctm IhdpIġv IpnbptSXpt]mse hmbv DWvSmbncnpw.

        ]noSv ]n sImWvSv ASpWvSmn Ipn/IhdpI apds ASbvWw. AWp\ioIcWn\p tijw Btmthv XWpptm \ocmhn XWpv ]n \\bmXncnm ]n  ASn\p apIfn ISemkv/t]mfno jov Ih sNbvXp d_mv Cv sIWw. CXv Btmthn (15 ]uWvSv (PSC) ) hv cWvSpaWnq kabw AWp\ioIcWw sNWw. AWp\ioIcWw sNpXn\v Btmthn\p]Icambn  {]jIpdpw D]tbmKnmw.

        Ipdn FItZiw cWvSnp Dbcn shsaSpv AXn Hcp Xtm Asæn Ipdn Cdm hepapXpw cWvScbnv DbcapXpamb Hcp ]m{Xw Ipdn IagvnhbvWw. ]m{Xns \ncv, shůns  \ncnt\m Aev]w s]mnbncnWw. ]noSv Ipdn Iagvnh ]m{Xn\p apIfn [m\yw \nd IpnI/IhdpI ASpnhbvWw. Ip ASv ASpn shv NqSmWw. inbmbn Bhnhcm XpSptm shbvv CSWw. BZys hnkneSn i_vZw tIġptm Xo Ipdv Ip cWvSp aWnq kabw ASpn Xs hbvWw. AXn\ptijw ASpn \npw hmn Ap apX ]p an\nv kabw XWpphm\\phZnWw. AXpIgnv Ip Xpdv IpnI/IhdpI ]pdsSpv XWpphm hbvWw. ]noSv amXrhnv Cu IpnIfn \nt]nWw.

        Cs\ sNpXv eman\m ^vtfm tNdntem, C\mptej sNdntem Hcp _W Asæn kv]ncnv emv Inv AXn\SppshmbncnWw. amXrhnp Ipnpn I]nSnncpm AXv AWp\ioIcWw sNbvX In sImWvSv Cfn ]noSv  Aev]w amXrhnv Hmtcm Ipn/IhdpIfnepw  CSWw. DS Xs Ch  ASpshncp ]n ASpsImWvSv Xncnv ASbvWw. Hcp Ipn amXrhnv FItZiw Ccpqdv IpnIfn ]ImhpXmWv. ]IpXn\mbn Hcn amXrhnns Ipn Xpdm AXnep hnv apgph\pw DSXs ]IpXn\mbn D]tbmKnWw. anw hm AXv Iq Irjnv s_pWvSmm\mbn D]tbmKnmw. AXns\ thsdmcpZnhkw ]IpXn\mbn D]tbmKncpXv.

        C{]Imcw ]InsbSp hnv IpnI km[mcW apdnbnse Dujvamhn kqnWw. CXv 10-20 Znhkn\pn ]qhfbnsenbm Iq Irjnmbn D]tbmKnmhpXmWv.  

  • hnpev]mZ\ns kmnIhiw

A.     aqe[\ apX apSv.

1.    {]jIp (22 lit)

3000.00  

2.    IĨapdn (\nehnep kmlNcyw sasSp)

1000.00  

3.    bp hn em_v

1500.00     

4.    C\mptej tN

2000.00  

5.    Kymkv IW AUzmkv

750.00  

6.    Kymkv ASpv

1500.00   

7.    _qk _W

150.00

        BsI

9900.00  

 

aqe[\ apX apSn\v 12% ]eni                   1188.00

aqe[\ tXbvam\ Ingnhv (20%)                        1980.00  

{]h\ apX apSv

Kymkv knenU

1650.00  

t]mfn s{]men Ih

1000.00  

s\v

500.00  

]n.hn.kn ss]v (3/4 %)

250.00  

amXrhnv

500.00  

cmkhkvXp

250.00  

Idv Nmv

500.00  

Iqen

6000.00  

BsI

15350.00  

{]h\ apX apSn\v

18 % ]eni (3 amkw)

690.00  

Dev]mZ\NnehpI  

{]h\ apX apSv

15350.00  

{]h\ apX apSn\p ]eni

690.00  

aqe[\ apX apSn\p ]eni

1188.00  

aqe[\ tXbvam\ Ingnhv

1980.00  

BsI

19208.00  

        Cu Nnehv 3200 Ihdv kvt]m DWvSmphm\p Nnehv BWv. tISpImWp IhdpI amnb tijw 3000 Ih \ Iq hnv e`npw. Atm Hcp Ih hnpWvSmphm sNehv 6.40 cq]bmWv.  

11. Iq kwkvcWw

        hymhkmbnImSnm\n Iq Irjn sNptm AXns kwkvcWhpw AXymhiyamWv. hnfshSpn\ptijw hfsc thKw tISphcpXn\m F{Xbpw thKw tISpXmsX kqnpXv BhiyamWv. CXn\mbn achnp kqn (Freezing), DWn kqn (Drying) Xnfnv DWn kqn, SnneSv kqn (Canning) F ]e am DWvSv. Iq Am, sIv, tkmkv apXemb hn`hfmnbpw kqnmw.  hnfshSptijw DS Xs Iq D]tbmKnv, Iq ISvtev, Iq Hmwtev, Iq q, Iq kqv, Iq ]pemhv, Iq _Pn apXemb \qdv IWn\p hn`h DWvSmmhpXmWv.    

  • Iq tISpXmsX kqn

        Iq achnv (0oC) 24 BgvN hsc tISpIqSmsX kqnmw. DWnkqnphm hnfshSp Iq cWvSp aqp IjWfmn Iodn shbnetm {Ubdntem (60-70oC ) hv Pemwiw 3-5 % BIpXphsc \mbn DWnsbSpWw. C{]Imcw  DWnb Iq Bdp amkw hsc kqnmhpXmWv. Cu Iq D]tbmKnptm Hcp iXam\w Dp shůntem, ipPentem apnhm AXp ]gb cq]nemIpw.

        ]q shůpWnbn s]mXnv. Xnf shůn \mep an\nv kabw thhnv DSs\ ]shůn apn XWpnp shw hmpt]mIphm A\phZntijw shbnetm, {Ubdntem hv DWnsbSpp kqnmw.

        ZoLImew kqnphbvpXn\mbn Iq SnneSp (Canning) hn]W\w \SpXmWv Fhpw \Xv. km[mcWbmbn Im sNbvX IqWmWv IbpaXnmbn D]tbmKnpXv. Im sNbvX Iq Hcphjw hsc tISpIqSmsX kqnphbvmw. Im sNpXn\p \ Cfw {]mbnep Iq hrnbmn ] shůn apnsbSpWw. ]noSv Xnfp shůn 3-5 an\np kabw apn h (Blanching) tijw ]pdsSpXv shw hmpt]mbXn\ptijw  XWp shůn apnsbSpWw. Cs\ Xmdmnb Iq Snn apm `mKw hsc \ndv 2 % hoXw Dv, ]kmc, 0.3 % kn{Snv BknUv Fnh tNv AcnsSp emb\n XnfnsSpv SnpI \ndbnhw HgnWw. SnpI ASv Xnf shůntem, Bhnbntem SnpIfpsS ay`mKv 80-85 oC NqSp InpXphsc CdnhbvWw. ]noSv SnpI Hcp koedn hv hmbp ISm coXnbn ko sNbvXp Btmthn 10 ]uWvSv {]jdn 25 an\nv kabw  AWp\ioIcWw sNbvXXn\ptijw  XWp shůn Cdnhv XWpnWw. ]noSv SnpI \mbn XpSv A\ptbmPyamb kmlNcyn kqnmw.  

Am, sIv, tkmkv XpSnbhbpWvSmn kqn  

        Iq, Am, sIv, tkmkv XpSnbh DWvSmn Hcp hjwhsc tISpIqSmsX kqnmw.      

  • Am DWvSmp hn[w

tNcphI

]q

500 {Kmw

Deph s]mSnXv

10 {Kmw

 

 

 

 

Dv

25 {Kmw

IpcpapfIp s]mSn

20 {Kmw

 

 

 

 

Cn

 

apfIps]mSn

10 {Kmw

 

 

 

 

AcnXv

25 {Kmw

asmSn

Hcp Sokv]q

 

Dn/khmf

 

Ge s]mSnXv

5 Fw

 

 

 

 

AcnXv

20 {Kmw

{Kmp s]mSnXv

4 Fw

 

 

 

 

PmXn]{Xn

 

hnoK

100 ann.

 

 

 

 

s]mSnXv

2 {Kmw

F

100 ann.

Cfw {]mbnep Iq ]dnsSpv hrnbmbn IjWfmn Apan\nv Xnfshůn apnhbvWw. ]noSv shw hmp t]mIphm A\phZnWw. Dnbpw, Cnbpw Fbnenv Cfw Xhnp\ndamIpXp hsc aqnWw. ]noSv CXv _mnbp km[\fpambn tNv \mbn ss{^ sNbvXp IpnbneSp kqnmw.

  • Iq hn`h.  

        Iq hn]W\w {]bmkamIptm Iq ISvtev, Iq Hmwsev, Iq _Pn, Iq ]mhS XpSnb ]eXcw hn`h DWvSmn hn]Wnbn Fnm \ em`w Inpw.  ]mNIw sNphcpsS at\m[w A\pkcnv Iq kqv, Iq ]pemhv, ajvdqw ^nUv, s]mdm, Pn ajdqw, Nnn sajvdqw, tkanb ajvdqw, Iq kemUv, Iq tXmc, Iq Xob, Iq Ipdpa apXemb \qdpIWn\p hn`h Iq D]tbmKnv XmdmmhpXmWv.  Nne {][m\ Iq hn`hfpsS tNcphIfpw, Ah DWvSmp hn[hpw Xmsg sImSpnpWvSv.  

  • Iq ISvtev  

tNcphI    

Iq (IjWfmnbXv)  50{Kmw   
khmf (AcnXv)  2 Fw  
Dcpfngv (]pgpn sXmenIsfSpXv)   100 {Kmw 
ap    2 Fw 
]okv  100 {Kmw
s\v    25 {Kmw  
apfIps]mSn   3 Sokv]q 
Imcv NpcWvSnbXv 1 Fw  
as]mSn 3 Sokv]q 
sdmnsmSn   200{Kmw  
akmesmSn  1 Sokv]q 
F (hdpm\mhiyn\v)  
]apfIv (AcnXv) 4 Fw 
Dv   Bhiyn\v  
Cn (AcnXv)  5 {Kmw  

   Dpw, asmSnbpw tNv Ipdv shhpw Xfnv Iq 5 an\nv thhnWw.  khmfbpw ]apfIpw s\n hgn CXntebvv thhn Dcpfngv, Iq, ]okv, Imcv, Cn, akmesmSn, apfIps]mSn apXembh tNv CfIn tXmn hmn hbvWw.  C\n DcpfIfmn ISvtens cq]n ]cn ASnsSp apbn apn ]pdta sdmnsmSnbpw apn Fbn sNdpXobn hdpsSpWw.  

  • Iq Hmwsev. 

tNcphI  

Iq (IjWfmnbXv) 150{Kmw
   
khmf (AcnXv) 1 Fw
   
Xmfn (IjWfmnbXv) 1 Fw
   
]apfIv (AcnXv) 2 Fw
   
ap 4 Fw
   
s\v 5 Sokv]q
   
Idnthne Bhiyn\v
   
Dv Bhiyn\v

             Iq, khmf, Xmfn, ]apfIv, Idnthne Fnh s\n hgn FSpWw.  Fnv ap \mbSnv Dv tNv AXn hgnb tNcphI tNv Hmwsemn FSpWw.  

  • Iq _Pn  

    tNcphI  

    Iq (IodnsbSpv)

    100{Kmw  

    ISesmSn

    100{Kmw  

    asmSn

    Hcp \pv  
    apfIvsmSn 1 tS_nkv]q 
    Dv s]mSn ]mIn\v
    F Bhiyn\v  

        ISesmSnbpw, ap tNcphIfpw shw tNv \mbn IpgsSpXv CXn Iq apn Fbn ss{^ sNbvXv _Pn Xmdmmw.

  • Iq Irjnbnse ]cnioe\w.

        tIcfnse Imembn Nnnq Irjnbpw, AXn\mhiyamb Iq hnpev]mZ\hpw em`Icambn sNmhp Hcp sNdpInS hyhkmbamWv.  CXns\pdnp hniZamb ]cnioe\w ]qnbmnbXn\p tijw am{Xta hymhkmbnImSnm\n Iq Irjn ]cmPbn Ieminm kmyXbpWvSv.