Xncnv

       t]mjIn ]dnhnfIfnepw    


      
a\pjycn t]mjImlmcfpsS Ipdhp aqew hnhn[ tcmK {]ISamImdpWvSv. Ahbvsms Cv NnInkbpw e`yamWv. GXmWvSnXp t]mse hnhn[ ImjnI hnfIfnepw AXymhiyw thWvS t]mjI aqeIfpsS B`mhw aqew ]e sshIeyfpw {]XysSmdpWvSv. kkyfn t]mjIn aqeapWvSmIp sshIeysf ]etmgpw tcmKtam IoS_m[tbm BsWv kwibnv A\mhiy hnj hkvXp {]tbmKntmw. CXv Hgnhmm Hmtcm t]mjInsbpw InaqeapWvSmIp sshIey FmsWv icnbvpw \mw AdnncnWw. ]dn hnfIfn km[mcW IWvSphcmdp IntcmK eWfmWnhnsS kqNnnpXv.                  

  • ss\{SP (]mIyP\Iw) 

kkyfpsS ImbnI hfbvpw DXv]mZ\n\pw Bhiyamb aqeIfn {][m\ ]p hlnp HmWv ss\{SP AYhm ]mIyP\Iw. Ch Fm PohhkvXpfnsebpw HcpLSIamWv. sNSnIfn amwkyhpw ]qW lcnXIhpw DWvSmphm CXv AXymhiyamWv. {][m\ambpw ss\t{Sv cq]nepw Nnetm AtamWnbcq]nepamWv Cu aqeIs sNSnI hensSpmdv ]Xnhv. sNSnIfpsS ]\ndw \ne\npXnepw s]sp hfbvpw, `yhnfIfnepw t^mU hnfIfnepw amwkyns Afhv hnnpXn\pw, hnp cq]oIcWnepw, AWpPohnIfpsS Blmcambn hnv an AhbpsS {]h\w XzcnXsSppXn\pw Cu aqeIn\v {][m\ ]pWvSv. Fm Ah Bhiyn\v InmsX hcptm hf s]mXpsh apcSnv t]mIpw.   

    ss\{SPs Ipdhv {]ISamIpXv {][m\ambpw CeIfnembncnpw. lcnX \nmWw Ipdbpp. CeIfn a \ndw {]XysSpIbpw IpcpneIfpsS \ndw apIbpw sNpp. CXns\ Ivtfmtdmknkv (lcnXlo\X) Fv ]dbpp. km[mcW ss\{SPs In {]mbw sN CeIfnembncnpw ImWpXv. {ItaW thcv, XWvSv, Imbv FnhbpsS hf apcSnpp. Cu t]mcmbva cqamIptm sNSnbpsS A{K`mKw hw Ipdv Iqv timjnv \n¡pXmbn ImWmw. Cu Ahbn sNSnIfn ]qhv/]qpeI {]XysSmXncnpIbpw AYhm DWvSmbm¯s Imbv]nSpw Xosc Ipdp t]mIpIbpw sNpp. 

    ss\{SPs A]cym]vXX ]cnlcnm ]nb ssPhhffpw cmkhffpw e`yamWv. NmWIw, ]nehfw, Itmv, tImgnmjvTw XpSnb ssPhhffn sNdnb tXmXnepw, bqdnb, ^mIvSw t^mkv, AtamWnbw kt^v Fo cmkhffn IqSnb tXmXnepw ss\{SP ASnbnpWvSv.      

  • t^mkv^dkv (`mhlw)

    \yqIvfnbnIv Aavfnse Hcp {][m\ LSIamb t^mkv^dkn\v kkyfpsS icnbmb hfbvpw, Ddpw _ehpap thcpIfpWvSmIpXn\pw X\Xmb ]pWvSv.         

   Aavfmwiw IqSpXemb an sNSnIġv `mhlns e`yX Ipdbpp. CeIfpsS ASnhipw Ce RcpI, XWvSv Fnhbnepw Nph \ndw Iecpp. `mhlns Ipdhv sNv, \mIw Fo aqeIfpsS e`yXsb Nnetm _m[np ImWmdpWvSv. IqSmsX XWvSpIfpsS hftbbpw sNSnI Imbvv XpSms\Spp kabtbpw CXv _m[npp.        

      ]bdphns sNSnIfn aqempZ DWvSmphm klmbnp AWpPohnIfpsS hfsb Ch XzcnXsSppp. aqempZ DWvSmpXp sImWvSv sNSnIfn ss\{SP IqSpX tiJcnm\pw AXv an \nn]vXamm\pw CSbmpp.              

        `mhlhffpsS A`mhw ]cnlcnm ]nb hffmWv Fps]mSn, tdmv t^mkvt^v, kq t^mkvt^v, A{Smt^mkv, aqdn t^mkv XpSnbh.        

  • s]mmjv (mcw)   

kkyfpsS AP \nmWn\pw lcnXI \nmWn\pw, tcmKw {]Xntcm[ inpw mcn\v {][m\ ]pWvSv.  \mpIfn Aant\m AavffpsSbpw t{]mo\pIfpsSbpw cq]oIcWnepw CXn\v apJy kzm[o\amWpXv.      

         mcw AYhm s]mmkyns e`yX icnbmb Afhnepw A\p]mXnepw DWvSmbncpm Ce, ]qhv, Imbv FnhbpsS Dev]mZ\n KWyamb h\hv DWvSmImdpWvSv.  CXpaqew hnfhv h\hpw ImWmw.  

         mcns Ipdhpaqew CeI NpcpfpIbpw AXncpI sNnv DWntmIpIbpw sNpp.  Nphnep CeIsfbmWv CXv IqSpXembn _m[npXv.  sNSnIfpsS hf aKXnbnemhpIbpw sNpw.  ImbvI hyXykvX kabfn ]mIamIpXpw mcns IpdhpaqeamWv.  IqSmsX hcĨtbbpw tcmKtfbpw sNdppp.      

        ChbpsS Ipdhv \nIpXn\v Nmcw, ayqdntbv Hm^v s]mmjv, kt^v Hm^v s]mmjv Fnh D]tbmKnmw. 

  • Imknbw

     kkyfpsS ImbnI hfbvpw, apIpfcq]oIcWn\pw Imknbw {][m\ ]phlnpp.  tImi`nnbpsS \nmWn ASnbncnp aqeIamWv Imknbw.  thcpIfpsS {Iaamb hfbvpw ans LS\ sasSppXn\pw, Pemwis \nb{npXn\pw, Aavfckw IpdbvpXn\pw hnpIfpsS Dev]mZ\ h\hn\pw Imkyns D]tbmKw ImcWamIpp. 

         Aavfmiw IqSpXep anemWv Imkyns Ipdhv IWvSphcpXv.  ]mIyP\Iw, mcw, aojyw Fnh A[nIamIpXpw Imkyns e`yXsb _m[npw.  Cu aqeIns Ipdhpaqew sNSnIfn ]e Xcnep tcmKeW {]XysSpp.  CeI afnpIbpw apIhiv DWnb ASbmf DWvSmIpIbpw sNpp.  IpcpneIfnse A{Kw ]pdIntev NpcpfIbpw AcnIpI Npfpnbpancnpw.  XWvSpI Zp_eamhpIbpw AhbpsS hf aKXnbnemIpIbp sNpw.  XmfnbpsS tmkw FUv tdmv Imkyns Ipdhpaqew kw`hnp Hcp sshIeyamWv.   

  • aojyw

     sNSnIfn APw, amwkyw, sImgqpI FnhbpsS cq]oIcWn aojyw Hcp {][m\ ]phlnpp.  `mhlw AYhm t^mkv^dkv hffpsS e`yXbvv aojyw BhiyamWv.  sNSnIfpsS ]\ndn ASnbncnp GI[mXphmWv aojyw.      

       IqSpX Afhn F.]n.sI. cmkhf \IpXv AkpenXmhkvYbvpw aojyns Ipdhn\pw ImcWamIpp. 

        ChbpsS Ipdhpaqew Nphnse CeIfpsS RcpIġnSbn apnI {]Xysv {ItaW apgph etpw hym]npp.  sNSnbpsS A{K`mKpw CeIfpsS AcnIpIfnepw Xhnp ]pnI DWvSmIpp.  sNSnIfpsS hf apcSnpIbpw hnfshSpphm Xmakw t\cnSpIbpw sNpp.  Amwiw IqSpXep an Cu aqeIns Ipdhv A\p`hsSpp.  

        ap cmkhftfmsSmw aojyw kt^v DsSppI aqew ChbpsS t]mcmbva \nImhpXmWv.        

  • k^ (K\v[Iw)

      CeIġv ]\ndw \Ip lcnXI \nmWn k^dn\v {][m\ ]pWvSv.  thcp]Sens hfsb sasSppXn\pw, hnp]mZ\n\pw, sNSnIfn Dtjhpw t{]cWbpw sNeppXn\pw ]bdphsSnIfn aqempZ DWvSmpXn\pw k^ F aqeIw klmbIamWv.  K\v[Ins Ipdhpaqew sNSnIfpsS Nphnse CeI afnpIbpw XWvSpIġv I\w Ipdpt]mIpIbpw sNpw.  {ItaW CeI sImgnbpp.  CXphgn hnfhp IpdbpIbpw sNpw.  CeIfpsS A{K`mKp \npw Bcw`np DWw Xmsgmndn sNSnbmsI DWnb {]XoXn Dfhmpp.   

        aojyw kt^v, AtamWnbw kt^v Fnh D]tbmKnpXv k^dns t]mcmbva Ipsdsbms \nImdpWvSv.  K\v[Iw tNpXp sImWvSv ans ]n.Fv.Ipdbm\nSbmIpw.  Fm Ipmbw tNv CXv ]cnlcnmhpXmWv.  mcXzw IqSpXep ans ]n.Fv. Ipdm\pw [mXpcq]nep K\v[Iw klmbIamIpw.      

  • Ccpv

       CXns A`mhw tIcfnse anen.  {]XypX, B[nIyamWv A\p`hsSpXv.  CXn\v {][m\ ImcWw anse ]pfnckamWv.  CeIġv ]\ndw sImSpphm Ccpv klmbIamWv.  Ccpnsæn HmeIfn sh \ndw {]XyamIpw.  tIcfn Ccpns B[nIyw aqeap afnptcmKw kkm[mcWamWv.  Ccpns Ipdhv A\p`hsSp Ahkcn IpcpneI {ItaW a \ndamIpw. apnb CeIsf CXv km[mcWbmbn _m[nmdn.  Ccpns B[nIymep tZmjw ]cnlcnpXv an Ipmbw tNpw \ohm hnnpamWv.    

  • amwK\okv 

     CeI IpcpSnpIbpw A{K`mKpw RcpIġnSbnepw afnv {]XrsSpIbpw sNpp.  RcpI ]bmbn Xs ImWsSpp.  Nnetm sNdnb Xhnp]pnI {]XysSpIbpw Ch CeIfn BsI hym]npIbpw sNpw.  sNSnI ZpeamIpIbpw hnfhv IpdbpIbpw sNpp.  mcmwiw IqSnb an IrjnsNp hnfIfnemWv Cu aqeIns A`mhw aqeap sshIeyw A\p`hsSpXv.     

  • \mIw (knv) 

     tIcfn Nne efn \mIns A]cym]vXX A\p`hsSppWvSv.  {]IrXymep Ipdhn\p]pdsa AanXamb tXmXn Ipmbw, t^mkvt^v Fnh tNpXpsImWvSpw Ccpns B[nIymepw knv sNSnIġv e`nmsX hcpp. 

      CXns Ipdhpaqew CesRpI Xnep AIew IpdbpIbpw CeI afnpIbpw sNpw.  Gdn\v 8 In.{Kmw. knvkt^v an tNv CXns Ipdhv ]cnlcnmw.   

  • sNv 

     sNv Bhiyn\v anensæn A[nIamb hcĨ sImsWvSt]mse sNSnIfnse lcnXIw \jvSsv DWw t\cnSpp.  ChbpsS Ipdhpaqew CeIġv \ofw IqSpIbpw Ah afnpIbpw sNpw.  sNSnbpsS hf aKXnbnemIpp.  sNns Awiw A[nIambm Ccpns Zue`yw A\p`hsSpXmWv.    

  • t_mtdm

     IpcpneI NpcpfpIbpw aph afnpItbm Xhnp\ndamIpItbm sNpw.  Ingph hnfIfn CepnI {]XysSpp.  sNSnbpsS hf apcSnpp. 

  • tamfn_vUn\w 

        Amwiw IqSpXep anemWv Cu aqeIns A]cym]vXX A\p`hsSpXv.  {]mbw sN CeIfpsS RcpIġnSbn afnv hym]npIbpw sNSnI apcSnpIbpw sNpp.  

  • tmdn  

       sNSnbpsS hfsbbpw Dev]mZ\sbpw hnnphm klmbIamb Hcp aqeIamWv tmdn.  CXv hfsc Ipd tXmXn am{Xta sNSnv Bhiyapp.   

       tmdnsbpw mcnsbpw A`mhw aqew {]XysSp eW GXmsWvSmcpt]msebmWv.  CeIfn abpw Hmdpw \ndnep ]pnI {]XysSpI, CebpsS XppI \pdpnsmSnp t]mIpI XpSnbhbmWv ChbpsS In sImWvSpWvSmIp eW.   

        ayqdntbv Hm^v s]mmjv, Idnbpv Fnhbnp sImSpv tmdns In \nImw.AIp sNm acWw hsc kw`hnpw.  Cu IoS\min\n ImjnI hnfIġv XSnse anan Cp sImSpm sNSnI B hnjw hensSppw.  sNSnI hnjbamIpIbpw IoS B{IanmXncnpIbpw sNpw.  aqv amktmfw Cu hnjmwiw As\ sNSnIfn Xn \n¡pw.  AXpsImWvSv CSnsS hnfshSpp ]dnIfn Imt_m^qdm F IoS\min\n D]tbmKncpsXmWv \ntiw.          

        amn \npw hmnb Noc, hgpX\, ]b XpSnb ]dnIfn Cu D{Khnjns Awiw Xn \n¡ppsWvSmWv tIcf ImjnI khIemime \Snb ]T\fn sXfnnpXv.  BgvNtXmdpw hnfshSpv \Sp Cu ]dnIġv t]mepw Imt_m^pdm CpsImSpppsWvSv CXn \nv hyamIpp. \ AdnbmsX Iptdsbmbn AIp sNp Cu hnj_m[bn \nv csSm\p amamWv kzw Bhiyn\p ]dn AhchcpsS hophfn \pWvSmpI FXv.    

        ASpfbnse ]mgmbntmIp shhpw AhinjvSfpw {]tbmP\sSpn Ipsdsbms ssPhhffpw tiJcnv Cp sImSpm Hcp IpSpw_n\mhiyamb ]dnI Ahchp Xs \pWvSmmw.  Cs\bp hophfnse Irjnbnepw IhSn\p thWvSnbp hn]peamb Irjnbnepw IoSieysamgnhmm hnjap bmsXmcp IoS\min\nbpw D]tbmKncpXv.