Xncnv

            HmnUpI- -AdnbpI, hfpI


           
Cv ]qfpsS Iqn Ghpw A[nIw {insSpXv HmnUpI BWv. HmnUv ]qhn\v khntijXI ]eXpWvSv-- hfm hfsc Ipdv ew aXn. tIcfnse Imemh HmnUv hfm hfsc tbmPnXmWv. HmnUv ]q CdpsSpv Ignmepw ZoL\m hmSmsX \n¡pw.

       HmnUv sNSnI hfcm\pw \mbn ]pjv]nm\pw tIcfnse Imemh A\ptbmPyamWv; {]tXyInv sX tIcfnse Imemh. Bcnnse Db Cu\nebpw, Cfw NqSp Impw HmnUv sNSnIsf ]pjv]nm t{]cnnp LSIfmWv. ]qjv]IrjnbpsS taJebn C{Xam{Xw BZmbw Xcp sNSnI hfsc IpdhmWv.

henb IpSpw_w  

        'HmntUkn' Fp t]cp Hcp henb kkyIpSpw_nse AwKfmWv Cv \mw ImWp HmnUpI. CXn GXmWvSv 35000--tmfw hyXy C\ DWvSv.
        hfcp kz`mha\pkcnv HmnUpI cWvSp XcapWvSv. H䡼mbn hfcpXpw, Hntesd IpIfneqsS hfcpXpw. HImbn apIfntebvv hfp t]mIpXns\ imkv{Xڳam
'tamtWmt]mUnb' Fp ]dbpp.  Nphn \npw Hne[nIw ImpI Iqambn hfcpXmWv 'knwt]mUnb'

{][m\ C\ XncndnbpI

       HmnUpIfpsS hnkvabnnp cq]hpw `mhhpw \ndhpw D ]q IWvSv ]ecpw HmnUv hfphm XmdmImdpWvSv. henb hne sImSpv CXns ssX Ah hmpIbpw sNpw. Fm hfp C\ns Nnh Adnbnm Fn, ssI\jvSw hcpw Fp Xo. AXn\m HmnUv hfm HcppXn\v ap]v Cu IpSpw_nse {]apJsc Hp ]cnNbsncnpXv \XmWv.

hmU 

       kkm[mcWambn \phfp Hcn\w HmnUmWv hmU. CXn\v hmWnPy {]m[m\yapWvSv. hmU Xs cWvSv XcapWvSv. {mv eo^vUv hmUbpw sStdv hmUbpw.

{mv  eo^vUv hmU

        CXn\v hoXn Ceb hmU Fp ]dbmw. CXns CeI {mp t]mse Inbpw hoXnbpapXmWv. CeI ASpSpmbn hfcpw. acnepw  ap ]nnSnp hfcp hmU sSkvte, hmU skdqfn Fnh km[mcW C\fmWv. hmUI, acn hp sIntbm, Xqp NnIfntem hfmw.

sStdv hmU

      
shbnep hfcm CjvSsSp sStdv hmUpI, s]knens cq]n CeIfpXmWv. CXv henb ]q Xcpw. hfcpX\pkcnv Xmp \IWw, Xd bn hcnIfmtbm Iqamtbm hfmw.

       hfcpXn\\pkcWambn 17:17:17 F cmkhfan{inXw 2 {Kmw Hcp en shůn ebnnv Xfnmw. IqSmsX NmWIsmSnbpw tNmw.

       ankv sPmhmIyw, tPm_v, sshv t^mw, dq_n {]kv, tPmk^n hms{_tdm XpSnbh hmUbpsS Nne hmWnPy{]m[m\yap C\fmWv.

       NnbnemWv \SpsXn 22 skoao henap ]qnbn sXmWvSv, CjvSnIjvWw, accn Fnh Xpeybfhn tN an{inXw \ndnp \SpI.

Acmv\nkv  

       'Acmv\nkv' F {Kop ]Zn\w 'Nnen' FmWv. NnentbmSp kmZriyap ]q hnSpXpsImWvSmWv Cu HmnUn\v Acmv\nkv Fp t]cp InnbXv. Dbcn hfcp kz`mhamWv. AXn\m XmpI \IWw.

       Acmv\nkv HmnUv cWvSp XcapWvSv. Ftm dn_Wpw, sdUv dn_Wpw. Ftm dn_ C\n ]qhnXfn a hcI DWvSmhpw. Fm sdUv dn_WnemIs Nph hcIfmWv ]qhnXfn DXv. Acmv\nkv sNSnIfpsS apIfntebvp hfcp `mKw cWvSp aqp thcpItfmsS apdnp \p hfmw. CXn\v kqcy{]Imiw CjvSamWv.

^et\m]vknkv

        H䡼mbn hfIcp Hcn\w HmnUv BWnXv. '^et\m]vknkv' Fm '\nimie`tmSv kmayapXv' Fw. \nimie`tmSp cq]kmZyiyap ]q BWv Cu HmnUn\v ^et\m]vknkv Fp t]cp t\SnsmSpXv.

       CXns CeI hoXn IqSn XSnXpw ISpw]tbm ]npIe ]tbm \ndw DXpamWv. ^et\m]vknkv, kwhn[m\w am{Xta hfcpIbpp. Dbchpw hfsc Ipdhmbncnpw.

       ^et\m]vknkv Aam_nenkv, ^et\m]vknkv kmUdm\, ^et\m]vknkv  hbtejy, ^et\m]vknkv ]aoe Fnh CXns anI C\fmWv.

       ^et\m]vknkv, Xqp Nnbn hfmw. thcpIġp Nppw CuapWvSmbncnpXv Cu HmnUn\njvSamWv. AXn\m Nphn NIncn hpsImSpmw. CXv \Sm\p Nn t\cs Xs ]IpXn accn sImWvSp \ndncnWw. ssX \pIgnv Nppw IcnjW \ncn \ndbvWw.

           DWnb acjWfn sInqnbpw ^et\m]vknkv hfmw. Nnetm ^et\m]vknkns Nphn \ntm ]q sImgn XWvSn \ntm ]pXnb ssXI DWvSmImdqWvSv. Ch CfnsbSpvp \SmhpXmWv.

sUt{Um_nbw

        Bbnctmfw C\fp Hcn\w HmnUmWv sUt{Um_nbw. sNSnbpsS XWvSn HpcWvSp ]q DWvSmIphbpw, \oWvS ]qWvSn \nch[n ]q DWvSmIphbpw DWvSv. CXn cWvSmas C\w Aemc]qjv]w (Iv ^vfh) F \nebvp]tbmKnm \XmWv.

       Ghpw ]pXnb XWvSvv Htm ctWvSm thcpItfmSpIqSn ths]Spn, sUt{Um_nbw hfmw.

       amUw ]mtUm, kok, PmIznen Ikv, tkmWnb Fmt]m ]mUm, Fm sshv, ]nv UbaWvSv, sjco^ ^mna FnhbmWv sUt{Um_nbns IhS {]m[m\yap C\.

HkoUnbw  

        \psS Imemhbn \mbn hfcpIbpw ]qjv]npIbpw sNp Hcn\w HmnUmWv HkoUnbw. CXn\v XmcXtay\ tcmK ieyhpw IpdhmWv. '\rw sNp s]pnbpsS' cq]amWv HkoUnbns ]qġv. AXn\m CXn\v 'UmknwKv tK' Fpw ]dbpp. 'tKmU jh' Fpw HkoUnbs hnfnmdpWvSv. XSnp ]c NphSpw sNdnb CeIfpamWv CXns {]tXyIX. hfsc thKw hfcpw.

         HkoUnbw ]q, ]qjv]memcn\v hfsctbsd D]tbmKnpp. 'HkoUnbw tKmUnbm\w' F C\amWv kkm[mcWambn ImWsSpXv.

       tKmh dmwtk, Sm, tKU CuKn Fnh aq Xcpp.

       tKmU kskv, enUv, sdbnt_m Fnh Nph ]q hnSpp.

        ]IpXn Icn \ncnb Nnbn HkoUnbw \Smw. hfcpXn\\pkcnv ssPhhfhpw cmkhfhpw \IWw 17:17:17 an{inXw 2 {Kmw Hcp en shůn ebnnv XfnpXv sNSn \mbn hfcm\pw ]pjv]nm\pw klmbIamIpw.

Imvenb  

        Imvenb HmnUpI sNdnb sNSnIfmWv. Fnepw henb ]q hnSpp. ]qfn [mcmfw \ndqpI DWvSmhpw. CXv HmnUv NnIfn sInqn hfmw. 60 % kqcy{]ImiamWv Imvenbbvpw ]Yyw.

kc 

       aqv C\w HmnUpI Xn kcWw \Sn.  cq]sSppXmWv '{Xnhkc'.  ChbpsS Fmw t]cpI 'ARA' Fo aqv Acfnembncnpw  Ahkm\npI. sammd k]v\mcm, tlmīpamd, IKzmcm, enamcm, enbmcm Chsbms CXnsSpp.

hf  

        HmnUns hf{]tbmKw bYmn CXqambn _sp \nccw {]hnph hjfmbn kzw A\p`hn \np cq]sSpn FSpXmWv. AXpsImWvSp Xs Hcp HmnUv Irjnmc\pw asmcmfpw sNp hf{]tbmKn hyXyk DWvSmImw.

        ssPhhffpw cmkhffpw HmnUns icnbmb hfbvpw ]pjv]nen\pw BhiyamWv.

        ImenhfamWv CXn {][m\w. amkpsemcn hoXw Imenhf {]tbmKw \Smw. ]mWIhpw DWmWIhpw IensbSppXmWv Imenhfw FtmpI CXv 1:5, 1:10,1:15,1:20 Fns\ hnhn[b\p]mXn shhpambn Ien sXfnsbSpv sNSnphn HgnpsImSpmw.

        tImgnhfamWv asmv. CXv {]tbmKnpXn\p ap]v tImgnhfw NqSp Hcp ]ZmamsWpw AXp]tbmKnptm Xobmbpw \\hpWvSmbncnWsapw DdmWw. 3 amknsemcnemWv tImgnhfw {]tbmKnmhpXv. Xdbn hfp HmnUv sNSnIġv 200 {Kmw tImgnhfhpw, Nnbn hfphbvv 20 {KmaqamWv \ImhpXv.

        ]nhfhpw  HmnUn\v Hcp \ ssPhmlmcamWv. Hcp `mKw ]nhfw 10 en shůn Ien AXns sXfnsbSpv Hmtcm sNSnbpsSbpw Nphn Acen hoXw Hgnp sImSppI

        tKmaq{Xwhpw Hcp en 20 en shůn t\nv sNSnphn Iptds HgnpsImSpmhpXmWv.

cmkhf  

        hn]Wnbn Ipp 10:10;10 F cmkhf an{inXtam Asæn 17:17:17 F cmkhf an{inXtam 2 {Kmw Hcp en shůn ebnnv sNSnIġp \Imw.

kqva aqeI an{inXw

       HmnUpIfn ]pjv]n XzcnXsSppXn\pw. apw klmbnp Hcp kqva aqeI  an{inXw (s^nssek skmeyqj) tIcf ImjnI kIemime iq]mi sNpp.

       CXv XmdmpXn\p tNcphI t\mpI

  s]mmkyw ss\t{Sv            :  2.63 {Kmw

  AtamWnbw kt^v           :  0.44{Kmw   

anjyw kt^v                     :  2.04 {Kmw

tamtWm Imknbw t^mkvt^v     :  1.09 {Kmw

Imknbw kt^v                  :  4.86 {Kmw

s^dkv kt^v                      :  0.50 {Kmw                     

aojyw kt^v                     : 1 iXam\w (CXn \nv 2.5                           an.en. am{Xap]tbmKnpI)

shw                                 : 4 en  

        Cu an{inXw Xpeybfhp shhpambn IenbmWv D]tbmKnpXv.

]Ww Xcp HmnUv ]q  

        Cv temI ]qjv] hn]Wnbn Xs Ghpa[nIw hcpam\w FnpXv HmnUv ]qfmWv. XmbveWvSv, tlmfWvSv, atejy, knwK]q, Fo hntZi cmPysfms ]qXnb ]pXnb \ndhpw cq]hpw D HmnUv ]q kcWneqsS Dev]mZnnv hn]Wnbn Fnv ]Ww t\Spp. XmbvemWvSv, Hmtcm hjhpw 30 Ziew Atacn tUmf t\Sp HmnUv ]qjv] hym]mcw \Spp. \psS Ab cmPyamb {ioe t]mepw Aemc ]qjv]rjnbn hfsc aptdnbncnpp. Cu cmPyfnsems HmnUv Irjn hfsc sNehp IqSnb k{ZmbamWv. ImcWw ChnSfn mkv lukpw {Ko lukpw apw Ir{Xnaambn ]WnXv AXn\pn HmnUv sNSnI hfcm thWvS Acow krjvSnnmWv Ah hfpXv. Fm \psS sImp tIcfn CXnssbmpw Bhiyan. ChnsS HmnUv Xpd Acon Xs hfmw AXymhiyw shbn \nb{nphm\p XW heI (sjbnUv s\pI) sInsmSpm aXn.

        100 sNSnI Hcp HmnUv bqWnmbn IWmpIbmsWn-

        hmU-100 hmUm sNSnIfn \nv icmicn 600 ]q Hcp hjw Inpw. CXn \np hcpam\w 7200 cq]. ssXI hnp Ipp hcpam\w thsd.

        Acmv\nkv HmnUns anI \So hkvXphn\v 15 cq] hsc hne Inpw. Fm sammd. BcmU t]mep C\ġv 250 cq] hsc Hcp ssXbvv hnebpWvSv.

        HkoUnbw-100 HkoUnbw sNSnIfn \nv icmicn 10000 cp] apX 20000 cp] hsc {]Xnhjw ]q hnpInpw. cWvSphjw sImWvSv sNSnIfpsS Fhpw hnpw,

        sUt{Um_nbw -100 sUt{Um_nbw HmnUpIfn \nv {]Xnhjw 5000 apX 8000 hsc cq]bvp ]q Inpw.

        XpSw Ipd coXnbn aXn. ]qsfbpw sNSnIsfbpw CjvSsSm Ignbp Bpw HmnUv, hfmw. Ipdv \ HmnUv ssXI hmn hfn t\mpI. Ah ]qjv]nm XpSngnm  ehpw kuIcyhpw t\mn hn]qesSppXm temNnmhptXbpp. ]qġv hn]Wn Inm _pnappWvSmhn. HmnUv ]q DsWvSn Bhiym \nsftSnsbpw. ameIfpw, s_mtIfpw, ss{_U s_mtIfpw Hs Cv HmnUv ]q sImWvSv [mcmfw XmdmpIbpw hngnpIbpw sNpp.

tcmK 

       HmnUv sNSnIsf _m[np tcmKfn {][m\sXv B{mIvt\mkv BWv.

B{mIvt\mkv 

       Hcp {][m\ Ipan tcmKw CeIfn apnI ImWpp. CXv {ItaW hym]nv Ce ]mtS a \ndambn ASphogpp. sNSnbpsS hfbpw apcSnpw.

       t^mīm^v (2 {Kmw Hcp en shůn) Asæn kns\_v (2 {Kmw Hcp en shůn) Asæn _mhnn (Hcp {Kmw Hcp en shů) Fnhbn GsXnepsamcp Ipan \min\n BgvNbn Hcn Xfnv tcmKw \nb{nmw.

aWvSbgpI  

        Hcp amcI tcmKw. ^et\m]vknkv, AcmU t]mep C\fn Cu tcmKw s]spWvSmIpw. aWvSbgpIep sNSnbpsS Ce, henm Ducntmcpw. tcmK _m[nXamb CeI \on aWvS hrnbmn  AhnsS t^mīm^v (2 {Kmw Hcp en shůn) kns\_v (2 {Kmw Hcp en shůn) Chbn Hcp Ipan\min\n D]tbmKnp tcmKw \nb{nw.

thcpNob  

        t]cp kqNnnpXpt]mse tcmKw _m[n sNSnbpsS thcpI AgpIn sNSnI \inpp. agmemWv Cu tcmK_m[bvv km[yX IqSpX. 'AcmU' C\nemWv thcpNob IqSpX ImWpXv. sXmWvSp]tbmKv HmnUv sNSnI \SpXpw tcmKw hcpXn\p Hcp ImcWambn ]dbmdpWvSv. t^mīm^v (2 {Kmw Hcp en shůn Asæn _mhnn Hcp {Kmw Hcp en shůn) Chbn GsXnepsamcp Ipan \min\n BgvNbnsemcn hoXw Xfnv tcmK\nb{Ww \Smw. thcpIġp Nppw thWvS{X hmbpkmcw e`yamm\pw {inWw.

IoS

  • i¡{]mWnI

        {][m\ i{Xpfnsemv. sNSnbpsS NphtSmSp tNv CeIfpsS Ccphipambn ]nqSnbncpv \ocqnpSnpp. As\ sNSnbpsS hf apcSnpp. aqp kv]q sshv Hmbn 2 en shůn ametbmWpambn Ien sNSnbn Xfnv i¡ {]mWnIsf Hgnhmmw. Asæn 1.5 ann en \phmt{Im Hcp en shůn Ien Xfnpw \nb{Ww Ddmmw.

  • aoen ap

        HmnUns Cebnepw XWvSnepw \nv \ocv henp IpSnp aoen apIsfbpw t\scs ]d acpp{]tbmKw sImWvSp \innmw.

  • ]mbpw Hpw

HmnUv sNSnIfpsS ]pXpthcpIsf ]mI Xnpp. CXns\ 's_bvtKm s_bnv' D]tbmKnp \nb{npI.

       cm{Xn kabv ]pdndn HmnUns Xfncnebpw ]pXpapfIfpw \innIbmWv  Hns  ]cn]mSn. Chsb ssIsImWvSv s]dpn \innmw Asæn samUnsslUv s_bnv hp sImw. s_bnv IoS\min\nIfpw apw hnevp ISIfn hmm Ippw.

  • Nph sNv

       CeIfpsS ASnhiv ]nbncpv \ocpnpSnpXmWv Nph sNv. ametbm D]tbmKnv Chsb \nb{nmw.

HmnUv ]qġv ckIcamb t]cpI

       hfsc XbXztmsS h ]ckv]cw Iqnenbpw aspw ImWm Ignbm cq]`mh \InbpamWv {]IrXn, HmnUv ]qjv]sf krjvSnncnpXv.  anhmdpw ]qsms AhbpsS cq]hpambn CWp Hcp km[mcW t]cp IqSnbpWvSmIpw. ]qXpXmbn Cu cwKtbvv ISphcm B{Klnp Hcmġv Cu km[mcW t]cpI, Chsb hfsc thKw Xncndnbm klmbnpw.

km[mcWt]cv

imkv{X\maw  

teUokv o HmnUvv

]m^ntbms]Unew kv]ojokv

UmknwKv tK  

HkoUnbw tKmUnbm\

t^mIvkv sSbn HmnUv    

dntmsenkv sdqk  

an HmnUv     

hmU SmSvskdn  

{Ko am HmnUv    

Andmkv B{tmt^md

dmv sSbn HmnUv    

Hs_tdmWnb kv]ojokv  

kvss]U HmnUv     

Acmv\nkv kv]ojokv  

Uuhv HmnUv

s]cntdnb Fte  

_^vssf HmnUv    

HkoUnbw ]mnentbm  

_o HmnUv    

H{^nkv Fns^d  

Pyqh HmnUv

A\IvtmssIekv kv]ojokv

q hmUm

hmU skdqfn  

sdUv hmU    

sd\nd Cwjpnbm\  

tlmfn t{ImkvHmnUv 

FnsU{Uw C_mPyqbnkv

ssSKHmnUv 

{Kmatm^nw kv]ojotbmkw  

      ap ]qsmpanm Hcp {]m[m\ ta IqSn HmnUv ]qġpWvSv. ZoL\m hmSmsXbpw ssNX\yw \jvSamImsXbpw \n¡psaXn\m, hfp Bpw sNSnbn hnSp\n¡p ]qfpsS `wKn BkzZnm AhkcapWvSmIpp. As\ e`np am\kntImmkw hneaXnmhpX.  Fm `wKn sImWvSp am{Xambntm- hnpt]mIptmgpw HmnUv ]q IjI\v XctSnm hne Xncnp \Ipp. Xs {im]qw hfnbXn\p {]Xyq]Imcw CXmWv HmnUv ]qfpsS alzhpw.