Xncnv

kkytcmK \nb{Whpw Izmdss \nbafpw

 

  • kkytcmK \nb{Ww \nb{nX amfneqsS

  Cybn  {]Xnhjw IoS, Ipan, tcmK apXembhaqew Dtiw 6000 tImSn cq]bpsS hnfhv \miw DWvSmIpXmbn 1974 se Hcp IWv kqNnnncnpp. Cv AXv ]eaSv hnnpWvSv. ]etmgpw kkytcmK aqew mahpw hfscb[nIw Pohlm\nbpw kw`hnnpffXmbn IWvSnpWvSv. DZmlcWambn 1942-43 Ahn`PnX _wKmfn s\sSnbn DWvSmb tcmKw aqeapWvSmb maw \nanw eWn\v BfpI acnXmbn tcJsSpnbnpWvSv. ]etcmKfpw IoSfpw Hcp {]tXyI `qhn`mKv Asæn Hcp {]tXyI cmPyv am{Xambn IWvSp hcpp. Ah ]etmgpw A{X IWvSv \miapWvSmmdpan. Fm ]e tcmKfpw adp cmPyfn \nv kkyfpsS IqsS AdnbmsX av  `q{]tZifn FnsSpIbpw Ah hfsc hn\miImcnbmbn `hnpIbpw sNmdpWvSv. DZmlcWambn, tIcfnse hmgbn IWvSp hcp Ipdp\mp tcmKw, {ioebn\npw sImWvSp h hmgpn \npw DWvSmbXmWv. AXpt]mse Xs aco\nbn IWvSp hcp samsskv  tcmKw, adp cmPyn \nv sImWvSp h aco\nWvSn \npw hXmWv. ChsbIqSmsX DcpfIngnse NobtcmKw, Imnbnse XpcpptcmKw, tKmXn\pWvSmIp kvav Fnhsbmw Cs\ ap cmPyfn \npw sImWvSp h hnn \npWvSmbXmWv. C{]Imcw ]pXnb tcmKfpw IoSfpw {]thinpXv XSbphm temIs Fm cmPyfpw Xs \nch[n am Ahew_nnpWvSv. AXn {][m\sXmWv kkyfpsS CdpaXnbn hcpnbncnp Nne \n_\v[\I. Chsb kkytcmK \nba (Izmdss) Fp hnfnpp.

    ASpImembn DXv]mZ\w hnnm\pff {ian Cym Khsav  Cu \nbafn Nne hnphogvNI A\phZnnpWvSv. DZmlcWambn, Nne Irjnmv Ahmhiyapff kkyfpw hnpIfpw ]pdw cmPyfn \npw kzambn CdpaXn sNmhpXmWv. Fm Chcpw Nne {]tXyI \n_\v[\Iġv hnt[bamtIWvSXmWv. hntZiv \npw hcp ]e bm{Xmcpw Cu hnhcadnbmsX bmsXmcp {]Xntcm[ \S]SnIfpw kzoIcnmsX  Cybntev ]e ]pXnb sNSnIfpw sImWvSphcppWvSv. Chv Ah sNp \S]SnI sImWvSpWvSmIp \mi\jvSspdntm, kkyIzmdss \nbaspdntm bmsXmcp hnhchpan FXmWv kXyw.

   kkytcmK IoS\nb{Wn\mbn Cybn {][m\ambn cWvSp \nbafmWv \nehnepXv.

1. Izmdss \nba

2. kwm\ ImjnI tcmK IoS BIvSv.

   kkytfm kky`mKtfm ]pdw cmPyfn \npw Cybntepw, Cybn \npw ]pdw cmPyfntepw Ibn AbpXpw, Cybnse Hcp kwm\p \npw ap kwm\fntev sImWvSpt]mIpXpw \nb{npXv ]vfmv Izmdss \nbafn IqSnbmWv. Fm Hcp kwm\n\Iv FhnsSsbmw Hcp kkyw hfmw, FhnsSsbmw ]mSn, CXv \nb{npXv kwm\ ImjnI tcmKIoS BIvSv A\pkcnmWv.

  • ]vfmv Izmdss \nba\nmW

  kmw{IanI tcmK ]IcmXncnphm thWvSn GsSpp hnens\bmWv IzmdssF ]Zw sImWvSv kqNnnpXv. ]WvSpImev ]vtfKv, tImfd, a\n Fo kmw{IanI tcmK D cmPyfn \nv hcp Bġmscbpw km[\sfbpw 40 Znhktmfw Ah h Ien Xs XmaknnXn\ptijw am{Xta av Bġmcpambn CSs]Sphm A\phZnncppp. Cu \S]SnsbbmWv Izmdss Fv ]dphXv. Izmdss F ]Zns AXvYw 40 Znhkw FmWv. Cu \nba BZyw a\pjypw ]noSv arKġpw AXn\p tijw kkyġpw \Snemn.

  Izmdss \nba BZyw \SnemnbXv {^mkn (1860) BWv. tKmXn\pWvSmIp Xpcpv tcmKw \nb{nm _m_dn F sNSn \SpXv XSbpXn\v thWvSnbmWv Cu \nbaw BZyambn \SnemnbXv. Cybn 1914 BWv Izmdss \SnemnbXv. hn\miIcamb tcmKIoS BIvSv 1914 FmWnXns t]cv. Cu \nbaa\pkcnv tI{kmcn\v Xmsg]dbp A[nImcfpWvSv.

1. ap cmPyfn \nv Cybntev sImWvSphcp km[\ \nb{nphm\pw Cybnse hnhn[ efntev km[\ sImWvSpt]mIpXv \nb{nphm\pw.

2. Iwkv Hm^okamv ko-Iwkv BIvSns ]cn[nbn kzoIcnmhp Fm A[nImcfpw Cu AIvSv \Ipp.

3. Hcp kwm\p\npw ap kwm\fntev kkytfm kky`mKtfm sImWvSpt]mIpXv \nb{nphm\pw, kkyfpw kky`mKfpw sImWvSv t]mIptm IqsS sImWvSpt]mtIWvS tcJI GsXmamsWv hyh sNphm\pw.

4. kwm\ kmcpIġv ]vfmv Izmdsss\pdnv AXXv kabv thWvS \nba \nmWw sNphm\p A[nImchpw thWvSnhm Nne sNSnIsf \innm\p A[nImcfpw.

5. ]vfmv Izmdss \nba ewLnphm {ianphsc innm\p A[nImc

6. Cu \nba \Snemm \nbpcmb DtZymKسamv thWvS \nbakwcWw.

   CUybn {][m\ambpw 19 ]vfmv Izmdss \nebfmWpXv. CXn Bsdw hnam\mhffnepw Fsw XpdapJfnepw Asw ]mnm, _, _wKvfmtZiv AXnnIfnepamWpXv. tIcfn 1955 apX sImn XpdapJv Izmdss \nebw {]hnppWvSv. ta¸d 19 {][m\ \nebġv ]pdsa sNdnb D]\nebfpapWvSv (DZmlcWambn Xncph\]pcw hnam\mhftmSv tNpXv).

  • ]vfmv Izmdss \nba \Snemp coXn

   Cybntev Icamtam, Ientem, hnam\ntem sImWvSphcp kky A[nIrX Izmdss ]cntim[\bvv hnt[bampp. Cu kkytfmsSmw tcmKIoS_m[bn F Hcp kmy]{Xhpw DWvSmbncnWw. CXv \tIWvSXv IbpaXn sNbvX cmPys Izmdss Hm^okamcmWv. CXnmsX sImWvSphcp Fm kky`mKfpw \inntWvSXmWv. X]men IqSnbpw kky`mK AbbvmdpWvSv. Atmgpw ta¸d kmy]{Xw ASw sNbvXncnWw.

   km[mcWKXnbn kky`mK Cybn FnbmepSs\ Ahbn IoStcmK\min\nI Xfnpp. ]noSv IoS ISm Hcp {]tXyI ev 40 Znhktmfw amnshbvpw. CXn\nSbn Hcp sNSnbnsenepw Fsnepw tcmKIoS ImWpIbmsWn Ahsb \innbvpw. \mev]Xp Znhkn\ptijhpw sNSnbn tcmKIoS Hpansæn AXp CdpaXn sNbvXbmġv D]tbmKnm\mbn \Ipp.

    kky CdpaXn sNm {]tXyI ssekkv thWvSXpWvsSnepw CsXmpadnbmsX bm{Xm ]ehn[nep kky Cybntev sImWvSphcmdpWvSv. ]etmgpw CXp IWvSp ]nSnsSmsX Cybn FntcmdpapWvSv. CXpaqew ]e ]pXnb tcmKfpw IoSfpw Cybn FntnpWvSv.

   hnv amm ]cpn, saIvkn _okv Fo Npcpw Nne kky am{Xta Cybntev CdpaXn sNpXv samambpw \ntcm[nnpp. Fm av ]e kkyfpw Nne {]tXyI efn \npw CdpaXn sNpXn\nv hnesncnpp. DZmlcWn\v Atacn `qJWvUn \npw bmsXmcp ImcWhimepw d hnpw ssXIfpw CdpaXn sNcpXv Fv \njvjnncnpp. AXpt]mse Xs B{^nbn \npw sImtm hnpw CXc kky`mKfpw sImWvSphcpXv hnenbnpWvSv. Fm ddpw sImtmbpw av cmPyp\npw sImWvSphcpXv hnenbnn. \mcIw, Dn, Dcpfngv Fnh CdpaXn sNptm AXn Nne {]tXyI tcmK Csöp tcJmaqeap Ddv DWvsSn am{Xta CdpaXn sNm A\phZnpIbpp. Nne k`fn CdpaXn sNtWvScoXnbnepw, kky`mK ]mv sNtWvScoXnbnepw ]e \n_\v[\Ifpw ]mentWvSXmbpWvSv.

   Nne kkytcmKIoS Cybn Nne kwm\fntem Asæn Nne ep am{Xamtbm ImWsSmdpWvSv. CXv IqSpX etv hym]nmXncnphm \Sm D]tbmKnp hnpw ap \So hkvXpfpw ap {]tZifntev sImWvSpt]mIpXv XStbWvSXmWv. CXn\mbn 1974- Hcp \nbaw sImWvSphcnIbpWvSmbn. Cu \nbans ]cn[nbn hcp \mep tcmKfmWv CybnepXv - Dcpfngn ImWp hmv tcmKw, hmgbpsS samtkv, Ipdp\mv Bn kvIm_v FnhbmWh.

   kwm\n\Iv tcmKIoSsf \nb{npXn\p thWvSn Hmtcm kwm\hpw ]etmgmbn \nba \SnemppWvSv. Xangv\mnepw B\v{[bnepw 1919-epw tIcfn 1947 epw ImSIn 1968 epamWv Cu \nba \SnemnbXv.

   kwm\ Xnep kkyfpsS hym]\w \nb{npI Cybn hfsc hnjatadnb Hcp ImcyamWv. CXn\pImcWw {][m\ambpw ]e Irjnmcpw Cu \nbasfpdnv AdnhnmhcmsWXmWv. kwm\ Xn hmgpI ssIamdpXn Nne hnepI DWvsSnepw AXv ]etmgpw Bcpw Imcyammdn. Xqew tIcfn am{XapWvSmbncp Ipdp\mv tcmKw Cybn ]e kwm\fntepw hym]np. CXns\mcp A]hmZamWv Dcpfngns s\atmUv tcmKw. CXv BZyambn Dunbn IWvSam{Xbn Xs Izmdss \nba sImWvSphcnIbpw, Xqew Cu tcmKw hym]npXv XSbm Hcp Afhv hsc km[npIbpw sNbvXp.  

  • ssPhoI kkytcmK \nb{Ww

   cWvSmw temI almbpn\ptijamWv cmkhkvXp D]tbmKnp kkytcmK IoS\nb{W am {]NmcnembXv. cmkhkvXp D]tbmKnv hfsc ^e{]Zambpw thKnepw kkytcmKsfbpw IoSsfbpw \nb{nm km[nXpsImWvSmWv Ahbvp hfsc {]m[m\yw DWvSmbXv. ]s Cv Aco aen\oIcWw, ]cnnXn kwcWw Fnhsbpdnv P\ IqSpX t_m[hmmcmbncnpp. Xqew ssPhoI Irjnpw cmkhkvXp {]tbmKnmsXbp kkytcmK \nb{Wn\pw {]m[m\yw hnp hcnIbmWv.

   hjfmbp {]Xn{]h\ aqew kzm`mhnIambn Dcpncnp h ]eXcw ssPhoI \nb{W am aptJ\bmWv {]IrXnbnse  kpenXmh ]cncnsSpXv. Ahbn NneXns\nsbms hniZamb ]T\w \Sn a\nemphm\pw {]mtbmKnIamphm\pap {ia Hcfhphsc hnPbnnpWvsSnepw ssPhoI am D]tbmKnpw cmkhkvXp {]tbmKanmsX apam am{Xap]tbmKnpap kkytcmK\nb{Wns ]e hniZmwifpw ]qWambpw a\nemm imkv{X temIn\v C\nbpw Ignnn.

   kkytcmKfpsS ssPhoI \nb{Wn\p Hcp {][m\ amamWv tcmKImcnIfmb kqva PohnIsf \nb{npXn\p Ignhp ap kqva PohnIsf D]tbmKnpI FXv. ss{Stm sUa F P\pns ss{S. hndnsU, ss{S. lmknbm\w, KvftbmIvfmUnbw F P\pns] Kvf. sshdkv, Kvf. tdmknbw Fnh ssPhoI \nb{Wn\v D]tbmKnsSp {][m\ IpanfpIfmWv.

   ssasmssdk C\ns Hcp Xcw IpanfpIfpw kkytcmK \nb{Wn\v D]tbmKnmhpXmWv. Ch an kkyfptSbpw thcpIfn {]IrXym Xs ImWsSppWvSv. Ccw IpanfpI thcpIfpsS ]pdw sXmenbn hfcpIbpw As\ kkysf anIqSn ]Icp tcmKfn \nv kwcnpIbpw sNpp. CXn\p ]pdsa Bn_tbmnpI D¸mZnnv thcp]Sen\p Nppw D]{ZhImcnIfmb kqvaPohnIġv A\ptbmPyam ]cnX:nXn DWvSmnbpw Ccw ssasmssdk, sNSnIsf kwcnppWvSv. CXp IqSmsX sNSnbvmhiyamb t^mkv^dkv, ss\{SP Fo aqeIfpsS e`yX hnnpIbpw sNpp.

   tIcf ImjnI kIemimebpsS Iognep shmbWn ImjnI tImtfPn CUym Khsans _tbm-sSIvt\mfPn hIpns [\klmbtmsS ssasmssdksbnbp KthjWw \Sphcpp. kao] `mhnbnXs IrjnbnSfn D]tbmKn hn[n ssatmssdkbpsS IĨdpI IjIv e`yampI FXmWv Cu KthjW]XnbpsS aqJyeyw.

   _mIvocnbIsfbpw kkytcmK\nb{Wn\v  D]tbmKnmsap sXfnnpWvSv. Bnfn Icnn DWvSmp Fho\nb Assatemthmd F _mIvSocnbns\ \nb{npXn\v AtX P\pn s] F. sl_ntImf ^e{]ZamsWv IWvSp]nSnnpWvSv. kyqtUmtamWmkv P\pns _mIvSocnb ]cpnbn IcnnepWvSmp kmmsamWmkv amthknbmdw F _mIvSocnbns\ \nb{n IgnhpXmWv. sNSnIfpsS CeIfn ImWp NneXcw _mIvSocnbI Xs sNSnIsf kwcnpXmbpw ]T\ sXfnbnnpWvSv. _okns CeIfn Xs ImWp kyqtUmtamWmkv ^vfqdskkv F tcmKImcnbm _mIvSocnbbvv _okns\ B{Ianp kyq. ^mkntbmfntmf F _mIvSocnbsb \innm IgnhpWvSv. Ccw kqva PohnIfpsS IĨdpI sshImsX Xs IjIp e`yambnpSpw.

     sshdkpIsfbpw kkytcmK \nb{Wn\v D]tbmKnmsav imkv{X IWvsSnbnpWvSv. _mIvSocnbIsf sImp sshdkpIfpsS (_mIvSocntbm ^mPv) D]tbmKw ]coW imebn Hcp ]cn[nhsc hnPbnnpWvsSnepw IrjnbnSfntev ChbpsS D]tbmKw Fm C\nbpw kabsaSppw.

    ]e ]acppIfpw kkytcmK \nb{Wn\v ^e{]ZamWv. DZmlcWn\v thv, Icns\mn, XgpXma, \nXyIeymWn, Xpfkn, Cnpv, shfppnsSn Fnhbvsmw kqva PohnIfpsS B{IaWn \nv sNSnIsf kwcnm\pw kqvaPohnIsf \innm\pw km[npsav sXfnnpWvSv. sNSnIġpw ]acppI hym]Iambn D]tbmKnp XpSp Imew hnZqca. kkytcmKImcnIfmb ]e sshdkpIsfbpw ]cp IoSfpsS B{IaWw Hgnhmm\pw Ccw Nne sNSnIġp IgnhpWvSv.

    thn ]nmv, \neSenmv, AdsmSn, XhnSv apXembh an tNp sImSpm anIqSn hym]np ]e kkytcmKmWptfbpw ^e{]Zambn \nb{nmhpXmWv. Ccw hkvXp an tNpXpaqew tcmKImcnIfmb kqva PohnIsf \innm Ignhp D]ImcnIfmb kqvaPohnI an s]cpIpIbpw X^eambn tcmK\nb{Ww km[yamIpIbpw sNpp. ans LS\bn A\pIqeamb amw kw`hnv hnfhv hnm\pw CXv klmbIamIpw.

    kqcyXm]w {]tbmP\sSpnbp asmcp kkytcmK\nb{W amamWv tkmfssdtkj. DjvWtaJem {]tZifn hn]peamb km[yXIfp kkytcmK \nb{WamamWnXv. \ shbnep ev th\¡mev av Infnfn Bhiyn\p \\ tijw \Xpt]mse \ncmn t]mfno jophncnpp. t]mfno jov an \hw tNv Ddncnphm\mbn AcnIpIfn Aev]w apw CSpp. Cs\ Ipdp Znhkw shbn Imbm A\phZnm anse Xm]\ne km[mcW \nebn \npw ]p ]{WvSp Un{Kn skjykv Fnepw hnpsapw Xqew B anse tcmKImcnIfmb kqvaPohnIfpw IfIfpw \innsSpXmbpw IWvSnpWvSv. XhmcWIfntebpw, Cn, a, ]dnI apXemb hnfIfntebpw an¡qSn hym]np tcmKmWp aqeapWvSmIp ]e tcmKfptSbpw \nb{Wn\v tkmfssdtkj ^e{]ZamWv.

    kn{iIrjn, hnf]cn{Iaw XpSnb IrjncoXnIfnsemw  ]tcmambn kkytcmK \nb{Whpw \Spp FXv {]tXyI ]cnKW\ Alnp hkvXpXbmWv. IrjnbnS hrnbmbn kqnpXpsImWvSv am{Xw ]e Ipan tcmKsfbpw XSbm km[npw. hnfshSpn\ptijw IrjnbnSfn XobnSpXv tcmKImcnIfmb kqvaPohnIsf \nb{npXn\v hfsctbsd klmbnpw.

    kkytcmK \nb{Wn\v hf{]tbmKnepw {isNeptWvSXpWvSv. ss\{SP hf (DZm: bqdnb, AtamWnbw kt^v) A[nIambm CeIfpw XWvSpw AanXambn hfcm\nSbmIpIbpw Acw sNSnIġp {]Xntcm[in IpdbpIbpw IqSpX tcmK_m[bpWvSmIm\nSbmIpIbpw sNpp. s]mmjv hf Aev]w IqSpX D]tbmKnpXv kkyfpsS tcmK{]Xntcm[ in hnnphm ]cym]vXamWv.