Xncnv

]dnIfnse tcmKfpw \nb{Wamfpw 


   
tIcfn IrjnsNbvXp hcp ]dn hnfIfn {][m\shbmWv shWvS, hgpX\, Xmfn, apfIv, Noc, ]Shew, ]mh, shffcn, a, Ipfw Fnh. ChbpsS hf apcSnnpIbpw Imbv^ew IpdbvpIbpw sNSnIsf AmsS \innpIbpw sNp tcmK \nch[nbmWv. Cu tcmK km[mcWbmbn Ipan, _mIvSocnb, sshdkv XpSnb AWp aqeamWv DWvSmIpXv. tcmKeW sImWvSpXs Ch aqeapWvSmIp tcmKsf Xncndnbphm km[npw. 

hgpX\h hnfI (apfIv, hgpX\, Xmfn)

  • ssX Nob              

sNdnb sNSnIfpsS IS`mKw a\ncn shv AgpInadnv hogpp. Nnetm hnpapfbvmsX an\Snbn shpXs Nofnp t]mIpw.  \ohmm kuIcyw Ddmnb XhmcWIfn thWw hnv ]mIphm.                     

hnv ]mIm\p Cuap XhmcW t]mfno jov sImWvSv Hcp amkw aqSnbntijw hnv ]mInbm BtcmKyap ssXI DWvSmm\pw ssXNob tcmKw Ipdbvm\pw km[npw.                    

  • \mbn DWnsmSn ssPhhf am{Xw D]tbmKnpI.  

  • hnn acpp]pcn D]tbmKnpI. Hcp Intem{Kmw hnn\v 2 {Kmw F tXmXn Ipan \min\nIfmb ssXdmw, Im]vm FnhbntesXnepw D]tbmKnpI.  

  • ss{StmsUa hns IpanfpI hnn ]pcnbpw hnv ]mIpXn\papv an tNpw Cu tcmKw DWvSmp IpanfpIsf \nb{nmw.    

   sNjWvSv an{inXw Asæn 1% hocyap t_mtUm an{inXw av IpXnchw HgnbvWw. ssXI apftijw 1% hocyap t_mtUm an{inXw tIm HmIvknIvtfmssdUv 3 {Kmw Hcp en shůn Asæn CtUm^n Fw.45 Fo Ipan \min\nIfn GsXnepw Hv av IpXnchw sNSnbpsS ISbv HgnpsImSppI. 20 Znhkn\ptijw Hcn IqSn acpv HgnpsImSpWw. th\¡mepWvSmIp ssXNoben\v Ims_WvSmknw F acpmWv ^e{]Zw. Cu acpv 2 {Kmw Hcp en shůn F tXmXn D]tbmKnWw.            

  • ImbvNob        

  CeIfn Xhnp\ndnep ]pnIfpWvSmbn Ce sImgnpt]mIpp. ImbvIfn ay`mKw Ipgnv Idp ]mSpIfpWvSmbn AgpIn t]mIpXmWv {][m\ eWw.           

  tcmKw h `mK ]msS \innp IfbWw. Hcp iXam\w hocyap t_mtUm an{inXw Asæn tIm HmIvknIvtfmssdUv 3 {Kmw Hcp en shůn Ien XfnWw.                     

  • _mIvSocnb hmw   

   Cu tcmKw hfbpsS GXv Lnepw _m[nmw. tcmKw _m[n sNSnI s]sv hmSntmIpXmWv {][m\eWw. hgpX\ hn s] sNSnIfn `ojWnbmbncp Cu tcmKw Ctm shcn hns] sNSnIfnepw ImWpp.   

   \ohmm kuIcyw sasSpWw. tcmKw _m[n sNSnI ]ngpsXSpv \innWw.                    

  tcmK{]Xntcm[ inbp Dze, aRvPcn Fo apfIn\fpw tizX, lcnX, \oena, kqcy XpSnb hgpX\bn\fpw in, apn Fo Xmfnbn\fpw Irjn sNpXphgn tcmKs sNdpp\nmw.  

   hgpX\h sNSnI Hcp ev ASpSpv \SmXncnpI. hnf]cn{Iaw \SnempI. tcmKw ]ScmXncnm\mbn tcmK_m[tb sNSnI ]ngpXp\innXn\ptijw Ipmbw hnXdWw. IqSmsX NmWIm Xfnv tcmKs \nb{nmw. AXn\mbn ]pXpNmWIw 200 {Kmw 10 en shůn Ien AcnsSpv sNSnIfpsS ISbv HgnWw. Asæn tIm HmIvknIvtfmssdUv 3 {Kmw Hcp en shůn Ien AXn kvs{S]vtmsskIvfn F Bn_tbmnv 200 ann{Kmapw IqSn tNv ISbv HgnpsImSppw \nb{nmhpXmWv.    

 shcnh (]mh, ]Shew, a, Ipfw)         

  • arZptcma]qv      

   hjImefn tcmKw _m[n CeIfpsS ASn`mKw AgpInb t]msebpw apI`mKv a\ndnep ]mSpIfpw ImWm km[npw. tcmK_m[tb `mK ]msS \innWw. \nb{Wn\v Xpfkn, Bcythv, \mqsSn FnhbpsS \ocv 10% hocyn CeIfpsS cWvSp`mKpw hoghw XfnWw. tcmKeWw IqSpXembn  ImWpbhkcn CtUm^n Fw-45 cWvSv {Kmw Hcp en shůn AYhm Atman aqp annen Hcp en shůn F tXmXn XfnWw.                     

  • Nq]qv  (]uUdn anUyq)     

   apImemWv Cu tcmKw ImWpXv. CeIfnepw XWvSnepw ]uU ]qinbt]mse ImWpIbpw Ce hmSncnv sImgnv \inpIbpw Imbv^ew IpdbpIbpw sNpp.                      

   IqSpXembn tcmKw _m[n sNSnIsf ]ngpXv \innpI. Cu tcmKw \nb{npXn\mbn  Icmt, Ims_WvSmknw Chbn GsXnepw Hv, 1 {Kmw Hcp en shůn Asæn K\v[I Ipan\min\nIfmb kīm^v, ks^Ivkv Fnhbn Hv 2 {Kmw Hcp en shůn Ien CeIfn XfnWw.

  • Cesmp tcmKw (B{Ivt\mkv)      

    CeIfnepw  XWvSpIfnepw hrmIrXnbntem BIrXnbnmtXm Bb ]mSpI ImWmw. ImbvIfn ImWp s]mpIfpsS `mKw Ipgnncnpw. sNSnbn ImWsSp s]mpIfn \nv ]it]mep {ZmhIw DudnhcpXpImWmw.                      

   tcmKw h `mK amn \innWw. Ims_WvSmknw F Ipan\min\n Hcp {Kmw Hcp en shůn Ien XfnWw.                     

  • sImne tcmKw       

   tcmKw h sNSnIfpsS XfncneI sNdpXmIpIbpw afnpIbpw sNpp. sNSnIfpsS hf apcSnpp. ]qfpw ImbvIfpw DWvSmImXncnpIbpw AYhm DWvSmbm Xs AhbpsS BIrXn \jvSsv hepw IpdbpIbpw sNpp. imJI s]mpXp IpdbpIbpw Dffh Xs I\w Ipdp t]mIpIbpw sNpp. 

  sshdkv tcmKs NnInXvknp t`ZsSpm km[nn.        

  tcmK{]Xntcm[ inbpXpw AXyq]mZ\tijnbpXpamb C\ IrjnsNpI.                   

  apIcpXembn XSn CSp hnns Fw IqpI. Hcp XSn \msew hoXw BImw. sNSn hfv hn hoiptm BtcmKyap cWvSp sNSnI Hcp Nphn \nnbnv _mnbph ]ngpXv \innWw.   

 tcmKw ]cp {]mWnIsf \nb{nm\mbn ]pIbnejmbw, ths - shfppn an{inXw Fnh ^e{]ZamWv. IqSmsX ]qhciv, Iogms\n, IyqWnv], Bcythv Chbnsemns Ce kv 10% hocyn Xfnv Hcp ]cn[nhsc Cu tcmKs \nb{nmw. If \nb{Ww Ahiyw \SWw.  

shWvS   

  • CesmptcmKw                    

    CeIfn Xhnp\ndnep ]pnI ASnhip \nv Bcw`npp. CepnIfpsS Fw IqSptXmsS Xs ]\ndw \jvSsSpIbpw Ce IcnbpIbpw sNpp. {]mbw sN CeIfnemWv tcmKw BZyw ImWpXv. 

   tcmKw _m[n CeI \inntijw, 1% hocyap t_mtUm an{inXw Asæn CtUm^n  Fw.45 F Ipan \min\n 2 {Kmw Hcp en shůn Ien CeIfpsS cWvSv hipw hoghw XfnWw.      

  • afnv/\cbtcmKw     

   CeI afnv Rcv sXfnv hcnIbpw ]pXnb CeI IpcpSnpIbpw sNpp. ]qfpsS Fw IpdbpIbpw ImbvIġv hepw IpdbpIbpw In IqSpIbpw sNpw. sho F {]mWnbmWv tcmKw ]cpXv.    

   tcmK{]Xntcm[ tijnbp C\ Irjn sNpI. AmA\manI, Am A`b, AcpW, Inc, k¡on XpSnbh tcmK{]Xntcm[ inbphbmWv. shosb \nb{nbvm ths-shfppn an{inXw Xfnbvmw.

Noc 

  • ]pnpp tcmKw   

   CeIfn apdnthXps]mse At\Iw ]pnI {]XysSpp. Cu ]pnpv {ItaW hym]nv CeIġv tISv kw`hnbvpp. cWvSpXcw Ipanfns B{IaWw aqeamWv Ch cqamIpXv. Nph NocbnemWv Cu tcmKw IqSpXembn ImWpXv.          

   tISph CeI ]dnv \innWw. Co-1, Co-2 F ] Nocbn\ tcmK{]Xntcm[ inbpXn\m Nphpw ]bpw CSIen\SpI.    

     PetkN\w \Sptm CeIfn ]cn \\bvmsX ISbv Hgnp sImSpWw. CeIfpsS cWvSp `mKpw hoghw 1 en sXfn ]pXnb NmWI shffn 2 {Kmw CtUm^n M- 45 F Ipan \min\n  Ien XfnWw. acpv  Xfnv cWvSmgvN Ignt hnfshSpmhq.  

]b h hnfI 

  • XWvSp Nob/ hffn DWw   

        CsXmcp Ipan tcmKamWv. Cfw sNSnbpsS XWvSn an\p sXmpapIfnembn \\ ]mSpI {]XysSpIbpw {ItaW Ch  Nobembn  cq]mcsv sNSn \inpIbpw sNpw.                       

]qhnSmdmIptm  DWvSmIp AgpIemWv asmcp eWw. NphSv  Akm[mcWambn XSnv sNSnbpsS XWvSn Idp ]mSpI DWvSmbn IcnpWpw. Cu eW Hbvtm Iqmtbm  {]Xysv sNSn \inpp.  hnv \SpXn\v cWvSmgvN  apv  XSn Nhdnv InpItbm, Ipmbw CSpItbm sNWw.   

        \ohmm kuIcyw DdmpI, hnf]cn{Iaw \SnempI, XSn Nhdnv InpI. tcmKw h sNSnIfpsS ISbv Hcp iXam\w hocyapff  t_mtUm an{inXw Hgnp sImSppI Fnh tcmKs Hcp ]cn[n hsc \nb{npw 

  • Icn tISv                   

         CeIfpsS cWvSp hipw  XWvSpIfnepw ImbvIfnepw Icn _m[nt]msebpffeWwImWmw.  C{]Imcw CeI IpcpSnpIbpw  ]gppIbpw  hffn DWpIbpw sNpp. tcmKw A[nImamb sNSnIfpsS IbvI IpcpSnpbpw aqsmsX \inpIbpw sNpp.                      

   hnn acpp ]pcn tcmK_m[ XSbmw. Hcp Intem{Kmw hnn\v  2 {Kmw F tXmXn Ims_WvSmknw D]tbmKnpI. tcmKw _m[n CeI amn \inntijw  Ims_WvSmknw F Ipan \min\n Hcp {Kmw  Hcp en shffn Ien CeIfnepw XWvSpIfnepw XfnWw.

  • Xpcpp tcmKw

   ]bdns  CeIsf _m[np tcmKamWv. tcmKw _m[n CeI  \inn tijw IhmNv, kn\_v, CtUm^n Fw 45 ks^Ivkv  Fo Ipan \min\nIfn Hv 0.2 iXam\w hocyn ( 2 {Kmw / en shffn) Xfnm aXnbmIpw.