Xncnv

kwtbmPnX kkykwcWw ]dnbn   


 
     IoSm{IaWw aqew IrjnpWvSmtbmhp \jvSw XnsSppI A{X Ffpa. Nne Ahkcfn Nne Xcw IoS KWyamb \jvSw hcpptm ap Nne kabfn Ch DWvSmntbmhp \jvSw {ibnsSm \ncn Btbmw. hnfIsf IoS_m[bn \npw kwcnpXn\p GI D]m[nbmbn Irjnm ImWpXv IoS\min\n {]tbmKw am{XamWv. kkykwcWw Fv tIġp am{Xbn Xs, e`yamIp GXphnjhpw AhbpsS Xctam {]h\ coXntbm a\nemmsX Db tXmXn ]ehw {]tbmKnv i{Xp{]mWnIsf hIhcppI FpXv Hcp sXmb kao]\amWv. XpSscpSscbpXpw hnthN\clnXhpamb IoS\min\n{]tbmKns ^eambn ]e IoSfpw IoS\min\nIsXnsc {]Xntcm[inbmnp Ignp. ISp hnj hn tXmXn {]tbmKnm t]mepw IoSieyw Hgnhmm \nhrnbnm Hcp Ln \mw FnbncnpIbmWv. Cu hkvXpXIfpsS shfnn, apImefn \npw hn`nambn hnj{]tbmKn anXXzw ]menWsap Hcp NnmKXn BtKmf hym]Iambn inbmnphcnIbmWv. CXn\nmWv kwtbmPnX IoS\nb{Ww F XXzw {]m_eyn hXv. 

kwtbmPnX IoS\nb{Ww Fmsev?

      IoS\min\n {]tbmKw DssS {]mtbmKnIamb Fm IoS\nb{W amsfbpw bpn]qw kwtbmPnnv IoSsf Aa sNpI FXmWv kwtbmPnX IoS\nb{Wns apJy Bibw. hnfIsf {]XnIqeambn _m[nm hn[w IoS\min\n {]tbmKw IpdbvpIbpw ap \nhmcWam IqSn A\phnpIbpw sNpIbmWv CXns Dtiw. Irjnv \miw hcpm hn[n IoSfpsS kwJy HXpn \npXn\v kmyamb \nb{W am Ahew_npIbpw, kqva\ncoWw \Sn IoS IqSpX \miImcnbmbn amdpp Fp a\nemptm am{Xw IoS\min\n {]tbmKnpIbpw sNpI FXv Cu Bibns ASnm\ {]amWamWv. {][m\s kwtbmPnX IoS\nb{W am hniZoIcnmw. 

{]Xntcm[ inbp hnpIfpsS D]tbmKw

      AXypev]mZ\ tijnbpXpw IoS{]Xntcm[ inbpXpamb  hnn\ XncsSpv Irjn sNpI FXv {]tXyI sNehv hcppXtm. Fm hnfIsf B{Ianp Fm IoStfbpw sNdpp\n¡phm Ignhp hnn\ Cv e`ya FXv Hcp ]cnanXnbmWv. Fncpmepw Nne IoSġv {]Xntcm[inbp C\ Cv e`yamWv. DZm:- ]mhense {]oXn, ]Shense IuapZn, a\nse A kqcyapJn Fnh Imbobvv Gsdpsd {]Xntcm[ inbphbmWv. IqSmsX {]Xntcm[ inbp \mS C\fpw \SpXn\p]tbmKnmw.

ImjnI \nb{Ww 

      \nehnep IrjnWnI Hsæn asmcp Xcn IoSm{IaWns tXmXv \nbnpXn {][m\ ]phlnppWvSv.  Irjn coXnbn ASppw Nnbpw AXymhiyamWv.  Irjn ew sXcsSppXp apX {i sNepntb aXnbmIq.  \t]mse kqcy{]Imiw InpXpw \ohmm kuIcyapXpamb ew thWw sXcsSptWvSXv.  Imew sXnbp IrjncoXn ]e IoStfbpw Wnp hcppw.  hnfhndp Imew {IaoIcnpw, hnf]cnh\w \Smnbpw, kaoIrXhf {]tbmKw \Snbpw, PetkN\w {IaoIcnpw IoSm{IaWn \npw Irjnsb Hcp ]cn[nhsc csSpmhpXmWv.  Irjnbndptm, apv IrjnsNbvXncp hnfI B ep Xs Bhnv IrjnsNmXncnphm {inWw.  ]e hnfI Iqn Ien IrjnbndpXpw \XmWv.  ew Hcpptm Bgn Infp adnbvpXv D`mKfntev kqcy{]Imiw \Xpt]mse InpXn\pw, anepff hnhn[ ZiIfnep IoSsf \innpXn\pw klmbnpw.  IqSmsX aphnfIfpsS AhinjvS \n_\v[ambpw tiJcnpXntem, IpgnpaqSpXntem NppIcnpXntem {intWvSXpapWvSv.  Irjn Bcw`npXn\p aptmSnbmbn ap]cntim[\ \Sm km[npsan AXv ]eXcnepw KpWw sNpw.  AX IqSpXep IrjnbnSfn IoStcmKm{IaWw IqSpXepXmbnmWv IWvSphcpXv.  AXpsImWvSp Xs As\bp efn \nesamcpptXmsS Ipmb {]tbmKw IqSn \SWw.

           hf{]tbmKnse sXmb {]hWX IoSh\hn\v hfsctbsd klmbnpw.  ssPhhfIrjnbn {]Xntcm[ in IqSpX DsWvSp am{Xa, cpNnbpw kwkvcWtijnbpw IqSpXembncnpw.  cmkhf {]tbmKnptm Bhiym\pkcWw am{Xw hf{]tbmKw \SWw.  IqSmsX Irjnehpw ]cnkchpw If hnapampXnepw {inWw.  Fsm, IfI ]eXpw IoSfpsS BXntYb kkyfmWv.  

ssPhoI \nb{Ww

              an IoSġpw {]IrXnbn Nne {]mIrXnI i{XqfpWvSv.  km[mcWKXnbn Ch i{XpIoSfpsS h\hns\ \nb{nv kpenXmh \ne\npp.  CXns\bmWv ssPhoI IoS\nb{Ww Fp ]dbpXv.  cWvSpXcnep ssPhoI \nb{Ww km[yamIpp.  Hv, Cc]nSnbmcneqsSbpw asmv, ]cmZfneqsSbpw.  ap IoSsf s]sv `Wambn IsWvSphsc Cc]nSnbm FmWv hntijnnpXv.  FpImenI, XpnI XpSnbh Cqn sSpp.  Fm, ]cmZIoS, AhbpsS PohnXN{Iw i{XpIoSfn ]qnbmpp FXmWv {]tXyIX.  AXmbXv - i{XpIoSfpsS \miw XmcXtay\ ]Xpsbmbncnpw.

           IoS tcmKġSnasSpp FXpw ssPhoI \nb{Wambn IWmmw.  sshdkv, _mIvSocnb, Ipan Fo kqvamWpfmWv km[mcWbmbn tcmK ]cpXv.  IoSkwJy htXmXnemIptXmsS tcmKfpw IqSpXembn ]cpp.  

cmk\nb{Ww 

             icnbmb Xcnem IoS\min\n {]tbmKw ]cnkc aen\oIcWn\p hgnsXfnpp.  Aco hmbphnepw shůnepw acpv Iev ]cnkcaen\oIcWw DWvSmIpp.  IoS\min\n {]tbmKw sImWvSv Dtin hnf kwcWw Inpn.  ]pdta ]ehn[nep Zpjy^efpw Dfhmpp.  AanXamb IoS\min\n {]tbmKw sImWvSv, IoS\min\nIsf sNdpp hfcm {]m]vXnbp IoS DWvSmIpp.  IoSfpsS kzm`mhnI i{Xpfmbn hfcp At\Iw sNdp{]mWnI  \innspt]mIpXpw, IoS\min\n {]tbmKns A]cym]vXX aqeamWv.  Ccw hn]pI IWnseSpptm IoS\min\nIfpsS D]tbmKw ]camh[n IpdpsImWvSp IoS\nb{W ]cn]mSnI \SnemtWvSXns BhiyIX a\nemIpw.    

           i{XpIoSns PohnX Zibpw, B{IaW \nehmchpw XnsSpnb tijw an{XIoSġv tZmjwhcm Xcnep IoS\min\n {]tbmKamWv Ahew_ntWvSXv.  kmnIamb hnf\miw DWvSmIppshn am{Xta hnj{]tbmKsn Nnnmhq.  kmnI \miw DWvSmIp Ahsbn Nnnptm IoSfpsS tXmXpam{Xw IWnseSpm t]mcm an{XIoSfpsS IWpw  FSpWw.  DZm:-  apbpsS B{IaWw IqSpXembn ImWptm AhbpsS i{XpIoSfmb hWvSpIfpw apw DtWvSm FpIqSn {inWw.  hWvSpIfpw apw IqSpX ImWppshn IoS\mi\n {]tbmKw DSs\ thWvS F \nKa\n FWw.  an{XIoS IqSpX Dtm cmk\nb{Ww hfscb[nIw tZmjw sNpw.  IoS\min\nI D]tbmKntWvS kmlNcyfn ]dnIfn Zpjy^e Cm ]pIbne Ijmbw, thn Ipcpkv, as Ipgv Fnh D]tbmKnmw.  

ap \nb{W am  

           ]eXcnep sIWnI D]tbmKnv IoSs BIjnv \innmw.  hnfp sIWnI, \ndap D]cnXe, BIjW inbp cmkhkvXp Fnhbpw CXnsSpp.  Ctm hfsc {]Nmcap cmkhkvXpfmWv ^ntdmtamWpI.  CXpsImWvSv IoSsf sIWnbn AIsSppItbm CWtNc XSbpItbm Bhmw.

           ]dn hnfIfn IoS\nb{Ww ssIhcnpXn\mbn Iqmb {]h\w AXymhiyamWv.  CXn\mbn ImjnI \nb{W amġv IqSpX {]m[m\yw \IpI, an{X IoSfpsS tXmXv a\nemnb tijw am{Xw cmk\nb{Wn\v GsSpI, cmk\nb{Ww AXymhiysav tXmp]w a\pjy\v tZmjw sNmXpw AhinjvS kz`mhw IpdXpamb IoS\min\nI D]tbmKnpI, IoS\min\n {]tbmKn\p apv \Xpt]mse hnfXpw GItZiw hnfhmbXpamb ImbvI ]dnsSppI. \nnX tXmXn am{Xw IoS\min\n Xmdmn XfnpI Fns\bp kwKXnIfn Gsd {i sNepWw.

IoSfpw \nb{W amfpw 

              Fm ImjnI hnfIġpsa t]mse ]dn hnfIġpw IoS ieyw DWvSmImdpWvSv.  Fm Chbn IoS\min\n {]tbmKw \Sptm AXoh{i BhiyamWv  IqSpX hnjhocyaptXm ZoL\m hnjhocyw \n¡ptXm Bb IoS\min\nI ]dn hnfIġv tbmPnX.  hfsc AXymhiyamsWn am{Xw, ]mIsanb ImbvI apgph s]mnsSptijw, hocyw Ipd IoS\min\nI D]tbmKnmw.  Ccw IoS\min\nI {]tbmKnv NpcpnbXv cWvSmgvNsbnepw Ignt ASp hnfshSpmhp.

           hnv \Sptm Imt_m^pdm AYhm t^mtdv XcnI CSpXphgn thcp_\v[I \namhncIfpsS hf XSbm Ignbpw.  am{Xa \ocqnpSnp IoStfbpw sNSnbpsS BZyLfn CXphgn sNdpm km[npw.  Imt_m k^m F IoS\min\n hnn ]pcm A\ptbmPyamWv (Prosses 25 DS).  sNSnIfn IpdpImew am{Xw Xn\n¡p HmKmt\m t^mkvt^pI amdn amdn D]tbmKnpXp hgn aWvUcnItfbpw \ocqnpSnp IoStfbpw \nb{nmw.  Cs\ Xfnptm cWvSmgvN apX aqmgvNhsc CSthfbnpthWw Xfnm.  aqXpw Hcphn[w ]mIambXpamb ImbvI ]dnpamnbXn\p tijw thWw acppXfn \Sphm.  

hgpX\ h ]dn hnfI

           hgpX\, apfIv, Xmfn apembhsb hfscb[nIw IoS B{IanpXn\m ChbpsS D]mZ\w KWyambn IpdbmdpWvSv.

           slIvSsdmn\v 0.5 In.{Kmw Imt_m^pdm F IoS\min\ntbm Asæn 1.0 In.{Kmw t^mtdtm ]dnp \Sp kabp an tNp sImSpm \namhncI hnpXv XSbmw.  AXpt]mse \ocqnpSnp {]mWnIfpsS ieyw IrjnbpsS BZyLfn Hgnhmm\pw km[npw.  XWvSpw, Imbpw Xpcp ]pgphntbpw FnemIv\m hWvSntbpw  hnhn[ ZiI ]nSnv \innpXphgn ChbpsS B{IaWw \nb{nmw.  ]pgpcq]nep IoSsf \nb{nm s^hmsetdv, ssk]sa{Xn,  B^msa{Xn  XpSnb Ir{Xna ss]dt{XmbnUpItfm, s^Xtbm, s^\nt{SmXtbm, ametbm, Izn\mt^mkv XpSnb HmKmt\m t^mkvt^pItfm amdn amdn Xfnv \nb{nmhpXmWv.  ImbvXpcs ]pgpsf \yqIvfnb t]mfnslt{Umknkv sshdkns an{inXw sshIptcfn Xfnp sImSppw ie`sf ^ndtam sIWn D]tbmKnpw \nb{nmw.  Nph aWvUcnIsfbpw CessapIsfbpw \ocqnpSnp tlmdpIfptSbpw shoIfptSbpw {XnpIfptSbpw IqsSbmWv ImWmdv.  tamtWmt{Imtmt^mkv, ssUsatmtbv, t^mkv^mantUm XpSnAhym]I IoS\min\nItfm, t^mktem, ametbm XpSnb kv]i IoS\min\nItfm D]tbmKnv Chsb \nb{nmw.  Im_mdnen\v aWvUcnIsf \innm IgnbmXn\m Chsb \nb{ntWvS Ahkcn Im_mdn HgnhmWw.  

           ImbobpsS Fw IpdbvpXphgn Ch aqeap hnf\miw KWyambn Ipdbvmw.  CXn\mbn D]tbmKnmhp NnehpIpd Hcp hgnbmWv sIWn {]tbmKw.  thKw AgpIp ]mfbwtImS t]mep ]gw DSXv Nncbn FSppI.  CXn Imt_m^pdm Xcn Ien ]epIfn Xqn CSmw.  ]q hfsbnb Imbosb ic Ienb IoS\min\n XfnpXneqsSbpw \innmw.  ASpftmfn ImbvI DdbnempXp hgn Cu ieyw Ipdbvm Ignbpw.  0.1 % Ivtfmss]dnt^mkv an {]tbmKnpXphgnbpw, entU F IoS\min\n an IpXnpXp hgnbpw, anep CubptSbpw hWvSpIfptSbpw hnhn[ Lsf \innmw.  HCH IoS\min\n Hcp ImcWhimepw shcnh hnfIfn {]tbmKncpXv.  ImcWw Ch ImbvIġv \ndhyXymkw hcppw.  CeI IcnbpIbpw sNSn \inpIbpw sNpw. 

NocbpsS IoS

             kmdm _kmenkv, sslta\nb dnhmenv apXemb IqSpsIp ]pgp (leaf webbers) NocbpsS CeIġv henb\miw hcpphbmWv.  Fnepw Nocbn acppXfn IgnhXpw HgnhmWw.  thn \npWvSmIp IoS\min\nI hnPbIcambn {]tbmKnmhpXmWv.  hocyw Ipd ssUIvtfmthmkv (DDVP) F IoS\min\n Ccw ]pgpsXnsc {]tbmKnmhpXmWv.

lm\nIcfmb IoS\min\nIfpsS AhinjvS hnjmwiw Fs\ hnfIfn \npw Hgnhmmw?      

  • hnjhocyw A[nI\m \oWvSp\n¡m IoS\min\nI D]tbmKnm {inpI.      

  • \nnjvS Afhn Xs IoS\min\nI D]tbmKnpI.  

  • IoS\min\n XfnpXn\p apv, aqsnbXpw Hcp hn[w ]mIambXpamb ImbvI ]dnp amWw. 

  • IoS\min\n, hnfbn \mbn ]Xnbvm {inWw.  Bhiysap IWvSm am{Xw hoWvSpw XfnWw.       

  • IoS\min\nI ASnpIgnv NpcpnbXv 15 Znhksanepw Ignt hnfshSpmhq. 

  • ImbnI hfbpsS BZyLn IoS\nb{Wn\mbn IgnhXpw Xcncp]nep IoS\min\n, \Sp Ahkcn {]tbmKnpI.  ]qhnXn\ptijw Ch D]tbmKnm ]mSn.  \SpXn\v apv hnpI IoS\min\nbn IpXntijw \SpXpw \XmWv. 

  • ]dnI IoS\min\nbn app {]hWX Dt]nWw.  

  • t\cnb Dpemb\nbntem, hn\mKncnbntem 10 an\npt\cw appXp hgn Ipsdsbms AhinjvS \ow sNmw.

           \namhncbpsS \nb{Wn\v apIqn IyqWnv ]bpsS Ce Asæn thns Ce Asæn ]mW Ce Hcp XSn Im Intem{Kmw F tXmXn Htm ctWvSm XhW ]pXbnSpI.  DZm:  \namhncIfpsS {]iv\w cqambnmWp efn ]v hcn shWvSbvv Hcp hcn s_n (tacntKmUv) F tXmXn \SWw.

ssPh IoS\nb{Ww 

   IoSfpsS Fw \nb{npXn\p an{XIoSfptSbpw, tcmKmWpfptSbpw (]cmZfpw Cc]nSnbamcpw) D]tbmKhpw AXns\pdnp ]T\hpamWv ssPhoI \nb{Wn DsSpnbncnpXv. Ch {]IrXnbn kzm`mhnIambn DWvSmIptXm, Ir{Xnaambn CdptXm BImw.  

   ASp Imembn ]e IoSfptSbpw ssPhoI \nb{Wn\v hfsc {]m[m\yw InnbnpWvSv. Fm ssPhnI \nb{Ws am{Xam{ibn IoS\nb{Ww {]mtbmKnIa, {]tXyInpw ]dnt]msebp {lkzIme hnfIfn. ImcWw ]cnnXn ChnsS amdnsmWvSncnpw. ]dnhnfIfn ssPhoI\nb{Wspdnp KthjW]T\ ]cnanXamWv.

hgpX\ hhnfI

Xmfn

  ImbvXpc ]pgp (slentImsh]m BanPnd)

  apItfbpw, ap hncnphcp ]pgptfbpw, ssPhoI \nb{Ww hgn \innmw. ss{Stm{K Intem\nkv Cjn, ss{Stm{K Intem{Sntb \KcmPm, ss{Stm{K {_koenbknkv Bjnw, ss{Stm{K {]nkw dnte Fnh sImWvSv ImbvXpcs\ ^e{]Zambn \nb{nmhpXmWv. 2,50,000 tmfw ]q hf Fnb ss{Stm{K {_koenbknkns\ Hcp slIvSdntebvv hnSpXphgn 20-70 iXam\w \nb{Ww km[yamWv. BdpapX Fp XhWIfmbn thWw Chsb hnSm. Hmtcm XhW 10,50,000 {]mWnIsf F IWn ]qhnSp kabw sXmtm, Imbv Xpcs B{IaWs IWvSpXpSp apdbvtm Chsb IrjnbnSfntev hnSmw.

   Bcw`Zibnep ]pgpsf \innpXn\v Imwt]msfokv IvtfmdntU bqnSmbpw, Fdn{_mdkv APntbm ss]temkkvImw Fnhbpw ^ehmsWv IWvSnpWvSv. 1994-95 ImSIn, XmfnbpsS ImbvXpc ]pgphns {]IrXnbnep i{XpfpsS IWsSpv \SnbXn \npw Adnbm IgnXv Imwt]msfnkv tmdnUbmWv apJyi{Xpshpw, 12-28 iXam\w ]cmZoIcWw DsWvSpap hkvXpXbmWv. ta¸d cWvSp {]mWnItfbpwIqSnbtXmXn ]coWimebn hfnsbSpm\p hgnI IsWvSnbnpWvSv. Ahkm\Zibnse ]pgpsf \nb{nm hntZinbmb mn\nSv ]cmZw -bpknetmdnb {_bm\n kmt{_mkvn hfsc ^ehmsWv IWvSnpWvSv. Chsb hnSp {]Imcw 8-20 iXam\w ]cmZoIcWw \Spp. s^hmsetdv, ssk]sa{Xn Fo IoS\min\nI bqknsetmdnb {_bm\nv tZmjclnXhpamWv.       

    ap Xnp ss{Stm{K {_koenbknknt\msSmw \yqIvfnb t]mfnslt{Umknv sshdkv XfnpXv ImbvXpc ]pgphns\ \nb{nm klmbnpw. Ch cWvSpw ImbvXpcs cWvSv hyXykvXZisb B{IanpXn\m Xn aXvkcapWvSmhn, AXn\m IqSpX ^ehmbncnpw. t^mktem HgnsIbp IoS\min\nIsfmw Xs ]cmZġv tZmjIchpamWv.

Atacn ks]bn eo^vssa\ (Nn{XIoSw)      

  Chsb \nb{nm\mbn D]tbmKnp Hcp kzm`mhnI i{XpIoSamWv bqtem^nUv ]cmZamb UnKvssf^kv s_Kn\n.

apfIv 

ap (ssav s]knt)     

   ss{Itkmt]e Im\nb F Cc]nSnb\mWv. apIsf \innp FXn{]mWnI. Ch aphnshsb 2-25 iXam\tmfw \innpXmbn IWvSnpWvSv.   

hgpX\ 

XWvSv/Imbv Xpc (epknt\mUvkv Hms_m\menkv) 

  CXv hgpX\sb B{Ianp Hcp apJy IoSamWv. CXns\ B{Ianp ]e ]cmZfpapWvSv Fnepw IrjnbnSfn ChbpsS {]h\w Xr]vXnIca. Bhiym\pkcWw XncsSp cmkhkvXpfpsS anXamb {]tbmKw hgn ChbpsS {]h\w XzcnXsSpmw.

Fnemv\ hWvSv

(lnt\msknemv\ hnPnnHIvtm]Mvtm)      

   Chbpw hgpX\sb kmcambn _m[nmdpWvSv. CXns kzm`mhnI i{Xpfn apJy s]Sntbm_nbv t^mhntbmemkv BWv. Ch 60-70 iXam\w hsc ]cmZoIcWw (parasitism) sNmdpWvSv. Ir{Xna ss]dt{XmbnUpI IoSn\pw AXns ]cmZġpw Hcp t]mse lm\nIcamWv. CXpaqew GItZiw 93 apX 99 iXam\w acW\ncv hscbpWvSmImdpWvSv. FtUmk^m F IoS\min\nbpsS {]tbmKw hfsc sNdnb coXnbnse Chsb _m[nmdpp. ]cmZfpsS {]h\w IqSpXembn ImWp Ahkcn Ir{Xna ss]dt{XmbnUpIfpsS {]tbmKw IgnhXpw HgnhmpI. Fnemv\ hWvSpIfpsS ]pgpsf ss{ItkmImdnkv tPmskmWn F {]mWnbpw apIsf Hmknkv kv]ojokpamWv B{IanpXmbn IWvSphcpXv. 

   Cc ]nSnbamcn ImXntIm\nUnb ^koenbmbmWv tIcfn ImWpXv. ChbpsS Ippġv 19 ]pgptftbm, kam[nZitbtbm Hcp Znhkw Xnpp. ]q hf Fnb IoSamsWn Hcp Znhkw 16 F tXmXn XnmdpWvSv.      

Ce Npcpnpgp (kmdm ss_]vmenkv)          

   FImgvknb kv]ojokv shoIfpsS ]cmZfmWv.    

shWvS

XWvSv/Imbv Xpc (Gdnbmkv hns) 

  shWvSbpsS Hcp {][m\ i{XpIoSamWnXv. ]cmZ Cu IoSn\psWvSnepw Hpw hfsctbsd ^e{]ZamsWv ]dbm km[npIbn. ss{Stm{K kv]ojokv 80-90 iXam\w hsc Cu IoSns apIsf \innpXmbn ]coWimebn sXfnnpWvSv. ]s ]mSp Ccw ]cmZ thWvS{X KpWw sNpn.      

XWvSo (sae\t{Kmssak ln_nkn)

  CXv shWvSbpsS asmcp {][m\ i{Xp IoSamWv. {]tXyInpw shWvS ]qhnSpXn\p app ImeLn. bqdntma kv]ojokv Cu IoSns Hcp ]cmZamWv. CXv XWvSobpsS P\km{X hnmsX \ne\npp. Pqembv, sk]vw_, Unkw_, P\phcn Fo amkfnemWv Cu ]cmZw XWvSosb IqSpXembn _m[npXv.   

CeNpcpnpgp (sskse]v sUsdmtK)    

  Ce Npcpnpgphns cWvSp ]cmZfmWv ]mcentmamnIvkv kv]ojokpw ^ms\tdmtSma kv]ojokpw.

Noc

CeXo\npgp (sslao\nb dnhmenkv)   

  CeXo\npgphns kzm`mhnIamb ]cmZfmWv A]menkv sUenbknkpw, ImUntbmssekv sslao\nbbpw. Ch cWvSpw 11.43,16 Fo iXam\ \ncnemWv CeXo\npgphns\ ]cmZoIcnpXv.  

shcnh ]dnI

]Shepgp (A\msUhnUnb s]tm\nkv)     

   Amenkv SdKmsa, Amenkv ]vfqknsb, aotkmtmdkv ]vfqknsb^nekv, Imkoenb kv]ojokv Fo ]cmZ ]Shepgpsf _m[npp. kam[nZisb \innp ]cmZfmWv {_mnaocnb amPnt\, sS{Smnkv kv]ojokv, ss{Stmkvss]ekv ]yqnthmd Fnh. 

Imt_Pn\ns ]dnI 

UbaWvSv _mvtamv (]vfqs ssktems)  

  Cu IoSn\v  hfsctbsd ]cmZfpWvSv. CXn {][m\shbmWv amt{Imatem Hmdnbmenkv, sImoknb qss Fnh. sImoknb qss F ]cmZw acpSnm efn 70 iXam\ne[nIw ]pgpsf ]cmZoIcnpXmbn IWvSnpWvSv. Ir{Xna ss]dt{XmbnUv, t^mktem Fo IoS\min\nI Cu ]cmZns {]uVIoSnt\m kam[nZibvtm \miw hcppn. ssUtmthmkv, tamtWmt{Imtmt^mkv, FtUmk^m Fo IoS\min\nI Cu ]cmZns kam[nZisb \innmdnsænepw,CXns ]qIoSs kmcambn _m[npp.    

  • Sp_mtm ]pgp (kvt]mtUm]vnd enyqd)  

   CXns apbpsS ]cmZamWv sSent\makv doakv. tamtWmt{Imtmt^mkv, t^mktem, FtUmk^m, aossX Unatm, ssUsatmtbv, tmss]dnt^mkv, Izn\mt^mkv, Im_mdn Fo IoS\min\nI Cu ]cmZns ]qIoSns\ kmcambn _m[npp. ]s ]cmZ apbnnp IoSns apIsf ap]d IoS\min\nIfn Izn\mt^mkv, tmss]dnt^mkv Fnh am{Xta \miw sNppp.    

  • Nnen aWvScnI         

  Nnen aWvScnI shWvS, hgpX\, _okv, shcn Fo hnfIfn [mcmfambn ImWmdpWvSv. ChbpsS Cc]nSnbamcmbn tImIvkns\nUvkv (stmdkv kv]ojokv), {Xn]vkv (ktbm{Xn]vkv kv]ojokv), ss^tmknUv Fnhsb ImWmdpWvSv. Chbn ss^tmknUpIġv Nnen aWvScnIsf \nb{nbvphm Hcp ]cn[nhsc IgnbppWvSv. tImIvkns\nUpIfpw, {Xn]vkpw Nnen aWvScnIfpsS Fs B{ibnmWv ImWpXv. ss^tmknUv Cc]nSnbamcmb Bwnknbkv sSn\nnthmdkns\bpw ss^tmknekv s]knanenknt\bpw ]coWimeIfn [mcmfambn Dev]mZnnp hcpp.

   ss^tmknekv s]knanenkns\ [mcmfambn s{^v _o tXmfn hntm sS{Sm\nkv AntbpsS Fw hfscb[nIw IpdpIWvSp. Ir{Xna ss]dt{XmbnUv Cu Cc]nSnbamv hfsc tZmjw sNpp. ss^tmknUv ssapIsf Nnen aWvScnI hnfIfn {]XyspXpSptXmsS hnm hfsc ^e{]ZamWv. CubnSfn acpv XfnbvmsX t\mtWvSXpw AXymhiyamWv. s]mXpsh ]cmZsf shpt\mptm Cc]nSnbamv hfsc Ipdp{itb CXphsc \Inbnpp. ]cmZfn Xs Ipdv Fs am{Xta hniZambn ]connpp. AXpsImWvSv ]dn hnfIfn kzm`mhnIambn ImWp FXn {]mWnIsfpdnv Adnbphm IqSpX {i \tIWvSXmWv. Fn am{Xta ]qamb Hcp \nb{Wamambn IWvSnsænepw kwtbmPnX IoS\nb{Wnse Hcp {][m\ `mKambnsnepw ssPhoI\nb{Wn\v m\apWvSmIp.

]bdns Idp apbvsXnsc an{XIpan (^yqtkdnbw ]mentUmtdmknbw)  

 ]bdns apIfn tcmKw hcpn Ahsb \innp Hcp IpanfmWv ^yqtkdnbw ]mentUmtdmknbw. Cu Ipanfns\ ap B{Ianp sNSnIfn Xfnm Ah apbn tcmKw hcpn \innptXmsSmw Ipanfns etm]ew hnpI DWvSmhpIbpw Ah ImneqsSbpw shůneqsSbpw ap sNSnIfntepw hym]nv apIfpsS hwi\miw hcppIbpw sNpp.

D]tbmKcoXn  

  t]mfno IhdpIfn AWphnapamnb \\ XhnSnemWv Ipanfns\ hfpXv. Ggv apX ]p Znhkn\pn Ch XhnSn hfv eWn\v hnpI DWvSmhpw. Cs\ XhnSn hfnb Ipan shůn Ien XpWnbn¡pSn AcnsSp emb\nbmWv Xfnm D]tbmKnp coXn. Hcp skv etv (400 N. ao.) 300 {Kmw Ipan aXnbmIpw.      

  apbpsS B{IaWw sNSnIfn IWvSpXpSnbXn\ptijw am{Xta Ipan hnv ASnbemb\n Xfnmhp. IoSm{IaWw hcpXn\papv  Ipan sNSnIfn Xfnmepw `mhnbn DWvSmtbmhp apsb \innm kmya.

   ssPhIoS\min\n, cmkIoS\min\n Fnhbvsmw an{XIpan D]tbmKnmXncnm {]tXyIw {inWw. 

ssPh\nb{Wn\v an{XIoS

 IoSsf XnsmSpp an{X{]mWnIfmWv NnenI. thmf, XpnI, ]p¨mSnI, NohoSpI, hWvSpI XpSnbh.      

an{X{]mWnIfpw i{XqIoSfpw Xnep A\p]mXw 2:1 F tXmXnemsWn IoS\min\n{]tbmKw ]mSn.

  Cu A\p]mXw \nbnpXn\v {]mWnIsf ]nSnp hoiphebpambn \Sv hoiptm Inp {]mWnIsf shůpWnbn IpSnv an{XfpsSbpw i{XpfpsSbpw FsaSppI. 2:1 F A\p]mXn IpdhmsWn am{Xta i{XpIoSsXnsc acpv {]tbmKntWvSp.

PohmWpIoS\nb{Ww 

  ap hnfIsf At]nv ]dnbn IoS\nb{Wns Imcyn hfscb[nIw {inm\pWvSv. CXn\pImcWw ]dnbpsS hyXykvXamb D]tbmK{Iaw Xs. ]mNIw sNbvXpw, ]bvmbpw ]dnI D]tbmKnpXpsImWvSv A[nI hnjhocyap IoS\min\nI D]tbmKnmsXbp Hcp kwtbmPnX IoS\nb{WamWv ChnsS DNnXambnpXv. kwtbmPnX IoS\nb{W amn ssPhnI IoS\nb{Wn\v Hcp kp{][m\amb m]\amWpXv.   

FmWp ssPhoI IoS\nb{Ww ?

    an{XIoS, IoSġp tcmKw hcpp PohmWp Fnh D]tbmKnv IoSfpsS kwJy Ipdbvm\p Hcp amamWnXv. BIoSfn h\v[yX hcpp Kmam civanI D]tbmKnp IoS\nb{Whpw ssPhoI IoS\nb{Wn DsSpnbnpWvSv.   

PohmWpIoS\nb{Ww

  a\pjyv tcmKw hcpXpt]mse IoSġpw tcmKfpWvSmImdpWvSv. Acnep tcmKmWpsfbpw Ahbn \npWvSmp DXvfpw D]tbmKnp IoS\nb{Wns\bmWv PohmWpIoS\nb{Wsap ]dbpXv.

  IoSġv tcmKw hcpp hnhn[bn\w kqvamWpfpWvSv. Ah Ipan, sshdkv, dnvknb, t{]mtmtkmh, \namhnc FnhbmWv.    

  PohmWpIoS\min\nI km[mcW IoS\min\nI t]mse Xs sNSnIfn XfnpsImSpmhphbmWv.

  Acntmn (1835) F imkv{X\mWv IoSfn tcmKapWvSmp sshdkpIsfn BZyambn ]TnXv. Atlw tX\oIfn tcmKw DWvSmp Hcn\w sshdkpIsfnbmWp ]TnXv. ]noSv a_dnpgphn tcmKapWvSmp s_mthdnb _nbm\ F Ipan IsWvSn. Ime{ItaW, temIns hnhn[ `mKfn \nmbn ]e IoSsfbpw _m[np hnhn[bn\w tcmKmWpsfn ]Tnp.

  Cu hnhn[bn\w tcmKmWpfn IpanfpIsfmgnv _mnsbmbn\hpw IoSns Dn{]thinv AXn\p tcmK_m[ DWvSmphbmWv. Fm IpanfpIfmIs, IoSns sXmen Xpfv Dn {]thinv, icocn\pn apgph hym]nv AXns\ sImpp. IpanfpIfpsS hnpI apfbvm \ Cuap Imemh BhiyamWv. BbXn\m Fmmemhbnepw IpanfpI ^e{]Za. _mIvocnbbpw sshdkpIfpamWv PohmWpIoS\nb{Wn ap]nbn \nevpXv.  

_mIvocnb

  \qdne[nIw C\ns _mIvocnbIsf IoSfn \npw thXncnv FSpv ]TnnpWvSv. Ahbn {][m\sh XmsgdbphbmWv. 

1. Pm hWvSpIfn (Japaneese beetle) tcmKapWvSmp _mIvocnb     

F) _mknkv s]mnntb (Bacillus popilliae) 

_n) _mknkv sentam_kv (Bacillus Lentimorbus)    

   tcmKw _m[n ]pgp ]mt]mse shfpncnpw. AXp sImWvSv Cu tcmKn\v milky disease Fv ]dbpw. Cu _mIvocnbIsf Ir{Xnaambn DXv]mZnnphm km[ya. tcmKw hp N ]pgpsf IoS_m[bpff efn hnXdnbnmWv BtcmKyap ]pgpġv AWp_m[ DWvSmpXv. 

2. _mknkv Xpdnnbknkv (Bacillus thuringiensis or Bt)       

   {]XnIqe Imemhbn Cu _mIvocnbbpsS tImi cq]mcsv kvs]mdmnbw Bbnamdpw.  CXn\pn hnv (Spore) IqSmsX hnjap {InepIfpw DWvSmIpw. hnjap {InepI, _mknkv Xpdnnbknkns {]tXyIXbmWv. \qnbdp]Xn¸cw ie`pgpfnepw hWvSnsbpw sImXpInsbpw ]pgpfnepw tcmKw hcpphm\p Ignhv Cu _mIvSocnbbvpWvSv. A\mfnse mcX (pH) 9 IqSpXemsWn am{Xta Cu _mIvSocnb ^e{]ZamIpIbpp.      

  Cu _mIvSocnbbpsS hnpI Blmc]ZmXvYtmsSmw Dnemp ]pgpfn Cu hnjabamb ]cepI AhbpsS DZcn hv Aenbpp. CXn \np hnjw DZc`mKġv XfbpWvSmpp. Blmcw Ignm\mImsX ]pgp Npt]mIpp.  Nnebn\w ]pgpfn Bamib`nnbvpn¡qSn hnpIġv Dn {]thinphm\mIpw. Cu hnpI s]mn ]pXnb tImifpWvSmbn hnv AkpJw _m[nv IoSw Npt]mIpp. 

  Ctm hnfIfn Xfnphm\p ]ebn\w _mIvSocnb IoS\min\nI e`yamWv. XpdnsskUv, _mt, lmht{Sm, kvs]mdn, _mIvtSmkvs]mdn, At{Kmt{Sm, ssUs], _mIvtSmkv]o lmīv, HIL Btk XpSnbhbmWnh.        

hnj{InepIfn \men\w hnjpapXmbn IWvSnpWvSv.       

  1. B^ FIvtkmtSmIvkn  

  2. _o FIvtkmtSmIvkn        

  3. Kma FIvtkmtSmIvkn        

  4. sU FtUmtSmIvkn      

hnjns {]h\w 

  ]pgp _mIvSocnb kvt]mdpI Xnp Ignm 1-1 aWnqdmIptmtgpw Ah Xfpt]mIpw. Cu Xf hp Ignbptm IoSns cnse mcX hnpXmbn ImWmw. CXn\p ImcWw CXnse BhcWambnp tImifn IqSn IpSense mcXtbdnb {ZmhIw Dn ISpXmWv. CtXmsS IoSw Blmcw IgnmXmIpIbpw Onbpw hbdnfhpw DWvSmIpIbpw sNmw.  

sshdkpI

    ssPhoI IoS\nb{Wn\p]tbmKnmhp Hcp {][m\bn\w AWphamWv sshdkpI. Dtiw 450 Hmfw sshdkpIsf IoSfn \nv thXncnsSpnpWvSv. Chbn IqSpXepw ie`, ISepI, CuI FnhbpsS ]pgp Zibn tcmKw hcpphbmWv.        

\yqnb t]mfnslt{Umknkv sshdkpI (N.P.V)  

  sshdkpIfpsS Iqn Ghpw {][m\s C\amWv N.P.V. ChnsS Ipsd kqvamWp Hcp amwkyns BhcWw sImWvSv s]mXnbsXmbn ImWpp. AXn\m Cu AWpqsf kqvaZin\nbn IqSn ImWm km[npp. IoSns Blmcn IqsS Dn sNp Cu kqvamWp ]eXcw tImisf B{IanpIbpw IoSns sXmen, fat bodies XpSnb icoc `mKfn [mcmfambn s]cpIpIbpw sNpp. X^eambn Cu `mKsfmw AgpIpIbpw ]pgp Nv Afnp t]mIpIbpw sNpp. Cs\ N IoSfpsS icocn Hp kv]inm sXmens]mn eWn\v kqvamWp shfnbn hcpp. Cu kqvamWp Ie sNSnbpsS `mK `np AtX hnep ap IoSġpw tcmKw _m[npp.  

   ]cpn, Xmfn, Fo hnfIfpsS Hcp {][m\ i{XpIoSamb lnentbmnkv F ImbvXpc ]pgp, Imt_Pv C\ns ]dnIfpsS Hcp i{Xphmb ss{Stmqknb F ]pgp, hmgbpsS Ce Xnp \innp kvt]mtUm]vnd XpSnb At\Ibn\w IoSsf ^e{]Zambn \nb{nphm Ignhp N.P.V. C\ns sshdkpI e`yamWv. Ahsb [mcmfambn D]tbmKnpw hcpp. Hmtcm IoSsbpw B{Ianp sshdkpI thsdthsd C\fmWv.

 IpanfpI   

  ]eXcw IpantcmKfpw IoSġv DWvSmImdpWvSv. t_mthdnb, samssdknbw, Ftam^vtXmd, ^yqtkdnbw, s]\nkoenbw Bkv]Pnkv XpSnb P\ppIfns] ]eXcw IpanfpI IoSġv tcmKw hcppp. IoSfpsS icocn ]Xnp hnpI, A\pIqe kmlNcyn apfv IoSfpsS sXmen Xpfv AIp Ibdpp. icocns  D`mKv ]Sv IoSsf sImpp. N IoSns icotcm]cnXen IpanfpI hfp \nevpXp ImWmw. {][m\s C\ XmsgdbphbmWv.

F) s_mthdnb _nbm\ (shfp Ipan)

   hn`n hn`mKfnsSp IoSġv tcmKw hcpphbmWv Cu Ipan. t_mshdnkn, _nbms\msseUv Fo hnjbfmWv IoSsf sImm klmbnpXv. 

_n) samssdknbw Ass\tkmntb (]\ndnep Ipan)   

  hnhn[ hnfIfnse IoSsf \innphm\mbn D]tbmKnpp. Cu Ipan Unkv{Sn F, _n Fo cWvSpXcw hnjw DXv]mZnnpp.

     ta¸d cWvSn\pw IpanfpIfptSbpw hnpI hfscmew XWpnv (4oC) kqnp hbvmhpXmWv.          

   Ftam^vtXmd F Ipan shWvSbnepw, hgpX\bnepw cqambn ImWp ]p\n tcmKw hcppp.      

   ]dnoSfpsS tcmKsfn ImjnI khIemimebn Hcp kt \SnbXn \nv Ahsb _m[np 10 Xcw tcmK IsWvSnbncpp.          

   Chbn _mknkv ]yqanekv F _mIvocnbsbpdnv hniZambn ]T\ \SnbXn \npw Cu _mIvocnb 90% hsc ]pgpsf \nb{npXmbn IWvSp. CXn\p thWvS KmVX 6.4 X 10.10  hnpI Hcp ann en emb\n F tXmXnemWv.     

   Cybn, hmgbpsS CeXo\n (kvt]mtUm]vnd enyqd) ]pgphnsbpw, ImbvXpc (lnentbmnkv BanPd) ]pgphntbpw sshdkpIoS\min\n, Pest Control India F I\n hnevppWvSv. _mknkv Xpdnnbknkv _mIvSocnb ASnb IoS\min\nIfmb HIL BtK Hindustan Insecticides Limited F I\nbpw, lmīv F s]mSn cq]nep IoS\min\n Wockhart F I\nbpw, ssU] Lupin Agrochemicals F I\nbpw hnevppWvSv.   

kqvamWpIoS\nb{Wns {]tbmP\  

1. ap PohnIġv lm\nIca.     

2. an{XIoSġv bmsXmcp lm\nbpw hcppn     

3. IoS\min\nIfpambn tNp {]tbmKnmsaXpsImWvSv Ah Bhiyambn hcp kmlNcyn Hnp {]tbmKnmw. IoS\min\nIfpambn tNv ASnptm ImcyaX IqSpXmbn IWvSnpWvSv.       

4. Ipan hnep tcmKmWpsf Ffpn Ir{Xnaambn hfmhpXmWv. DZmlcWn\v s_mthdnb _nbm\ F Ipan tKmXp XhnSn hfmhpXmWv.       

5. IoS\min\nIsftmse Xs Ch sNSnbn Xfnmw. 

6. NneIoSmWp Hcn XfnpIgnm sNSnIfnepw anepw hfscmew \nevpIbpw {]tbmP\w sNpIbpw sNpw.  

7. IoSns\Xntc {]Xntcm[in DWvSmImdn.     

kqvamWp D]tbmKnptmgp tZmjhi 

1. hfsc kqvaXtbmSpIqSnbpw IrXykabpw IoSmWpsf sNSnIfn D]tbmKntWvSXmWv.  

2. kqvamWp {]tXyIbn\ns IoSsf am{Xta B{Ianmdpp. AXn\m ]eXcw IoSġv Hcpanv sNSnsb B{Ianptm CXv ^e{]Za.  

3. sshdkpt]msebp kqvamWpsf Ir{Xnaambn DXv]mZnnphm km[ya.

4. Ipan hns kqvamWpfpsS {]tbmP\aX Imemh A\pkcnpamdpw. Chbvv IqSpX Cuw BhiyapWvSv.  

A]mbclnXamb ssPhIoS\min\nI 

   kkykwcWn\p IoS\min\nIfpw Ipan\min\nIfpw AanXambn {]tbmKnp coXnbmWv km[mcW IWvSphcpXv. cmkhkvXpfpsS A\nb{nXamb {]tbmKw an{XIoSfpsShn\min\pw ]cnkc aen\oIcWn\pw hgnsbmcpmdpWvSv. \psS hnphfn \phfp ]dnIġpw apw cmkIoS\min\nIsImWvSv kwcWw \n_\v[a. adnv, A]mbclnXhpw sNehv IpdXpamb \nch[n \mS IoS\min\nI \mw kzbw Xmdmn IoStcmK ieyapWvSmIptm Xfnv ]dnhnfIsf kwcnWw. 

   A]mbclnXamb Cu kkykwcW acppIġv KpW aqmWv. Hv, Ch kzbw hon¯s \apv XmdmmsaXmWv. cWvSmatXv, cmkIoS\min\nIfpambn XmcXayw sNptm CXn\v \nmWsehv Xptemw IpdhmWv. CXnsems {][m\w Cu acppI Hcp Xcnepw a\pjyt\m, PohPmetm lm\nIctam ]cnkcaen\oIcWw hcpnhbvptXm AmsbXmWv.

thnIpcp an{inXw  

  Hcp {Kmw thnIpcp Inhv \mbn Actm s]mSntm XpWnngnbn sIn 12 aWnq t\cw Hcp en shůn apn hbvpI. Ipcphns kv \mbn Dudn Cdhn[w Ingn sRn ]ngnbWw Cs\ ]e{]mhiyw sRn ]ngnsSppXmWv 0.1% hocyap thnIpcp an{inXw. shWvS, hgpX\ XpSnb hnfIfnse CeXo\npgp, Xpų Fnhsb \innm CXp]tbmKnmw.

ths Faj

   Hcp en thsbpw 60 {Kmw _mtkmpamWv Fajs {][m\ LSI. Ac en sNdp NqSpshůn ebnnsSp tkmpemb\n thsbn tNv CfpI. shWvS, ]Shew, ]mh, hgpX\ XpSnb ImbvIdnIsf B{Ianp Ce Xo\npgp, ]bdns CeIfn Nn{Xw hcbvp Nn{XIoSw, ]bt XpSnbhbvsXnsc Faj 40 Ccn shůn tNv CeIfpsS Ccphifnepw sNdpIWnIIfmbn ]Xnp coXnbn XfnWw.       

]pIbnejmbw

  Ac Intem{Kmw ]pIbnetbm, ]pIbne sRtm sNdpXmbn Acnv \mec en shůn apn Hcp Znhkw hbvpI. CXn\v tijw shůn apnh ]pIbne IjW ]ngnv ]pIbneWvSn ampI. C{]Imcw e`n ]pIbnemdn, 120 {Kmw _mtkmv sNdpXmbn Acnv shůn ebnnsSp emb\n tNv \mbn CfpI. Cu ]pIbnejmbw 6-7 Ccn shw tNv Xfnm ]bt\pIsfbpw ap arZpe icocnIfmb IoSsfbpw \nb{nmw.    

aspgv  

  _mtkmpw asbpamWv CXnse {][m\ tNcphI. 500 {Kmw km[mcW _mtkmv t\bmbn Acnv \mec en shůn sNdpXmbn NqSmnsmWvSv ebnnpI. emb\n XWpp Ignbptm CXntebvv 9 en as \mbn CfnsmWvSv ]IcpI. CXn 15-20 Ccn shw tNv Cfnbtijw sNSnIfn Xfnmw. \ocqnpSnp {]mWnIsf \nb{nm klmbnpw.

  • t_mtUm an{inXw  

    100 {Kmw Xpcniv s]mSnv 5 en shůn ebnnpI. 100 {Kmw \opI 5 en shůn thsd ebnnpI. Xpcnipemb\n Im emb\nbn Hgnv \Xpt]mse Cfn tNpI. Cuemb\nbn  tXp an\pnb Hcp CcppIn Ipdpt\cw apnhbvpI. In ap\bn sNns s]mSn ASnbpXmbn ImWppshn Im emb\n Aev]mev]ambn tNv emb\n icnbmpI. \Xpt]mse Xm sNbvX t_mtUm an{inXn\v \ \oe \ndambncnpw. t_mtUm an{inXw Xmdmm sNv ]m{Xtfm a]m{Xtfm mnIv ]m{Xtfm D]tbmKnWw. am{Xa an{inXw DWvSmnbmepS ApXs D]tbmKnpIbpw thWw.

t_mtUm Ipgv

   Xpcnipw \opImbpw XsbmWv t_mtUmpgnsbpw tNcphI. 100 {Kmw Xpcniv Ac en shůn ebnnsSppI. 100 {Kmw Im thsd Ac en shůn IensbSppI. cWvSpw IqSn tNv Ignm Hcp en t_mtUmpgv Xmdmbn.

sNjWvSv an{inXw

   Xpcnipw AtamWnbw Im_tWpw tNm sNjWvSv an{inXw Bbn. 60 {Kmw Xpcnipw 330 {Kmw AtamWnbw Im_tWpw \mbnsmSnv CfntpI. CXv 24 aWnq t\cw ImpISmsX Xhnp\ndnep ImSn ]m{Xn kqnp hbvpI. CXn \npw 25 {Kmw FSpv Ipdv NqSpshůn ebnnpI. Fnv 8 en shw tNv t\nv D]tbmKnmw. sNjWvSv an{inXw {][m\ambpw an \np Ipan_m[ XSbpXn\pthWvSn ansemgnv IpXnpIbmWv sNpXv.

  • shfppn an{inXw  

   20 {Kmw shfppn \mbn Acv Hcp en shůn tNv Acnv sXfnsbSppI. Cu emb\n Hcp endn\v 4 ann en F tXmXn ametbm IqntNWw. ]mhensebpw apw ]ps\ \nb{nm shfppn an{inXn\v Ignbpw.  

  • ]gsWn

   ]mfbtImS ]gw sXmenbpcnbmsX aqv \mev IjWfmbn Ncnp apdnpI. Hcp ISemkn ]cn Cncnp Imt_m^pdm Xcnbn ]gns Hcp apdnmSv AapI. Imt_m^pdm Xcn ]nSnn ]gns `mKw apIfnemn Nncbn hv ]en Ddn sInqnbm ]gsWnbmbn. 

  • XpfknsWn   

  Hcp sIWnv Hcp ssI]nSn \ndsb F IWn XpfknCe thWvSnhcpw. Xpfknbne \Xpt]mse Acv Nncpn CSpI. AcsSp XpfknbneI DWntmImXncnm Ipdpshw Nncbvpn HgnpI. C\n 10 {Kmw ic s]mSnv CXn tNpI. ]noSv Hcp \pv Imt_m^pdm Xcn Nmdn Cv CfpI. 

  ]gsWnbnsebpw XpfknsWnbnsebpw Imt_m^pdm Xcnbm hnjen]vXamb Nmdv IpSnv ImboI NsmSppw.   

  • aosIWn       

   18 X 13 sknao henap Inbp t]mfno IhdpIfnemWp sIWn XmdmpXv.  t]mfno Ihdns Nphn 3-4 sknao s]mn Imbobvv ISmhp{X hepn aqtm \mtem Zzmc CSpI. C\n Hcp sIWnv 5 {Kmw s]mSn ao sNdpXmbn \\v t]mfnoIhdn\pn Hcp AcnIv tNv hbvpI. \phm F IoS\min\nbn Hcp ]njWw apnsbSpv t]mfno Ihdn\pn asmccnIn tNv hbvpI. CXn\ptijw t]mfno Ihdns apI`mKw \qepsImWvSv sIn ]en Xqn CSWw. \\p h ao\n BIjnsSp CuI t]mfno IqSpIfn IpSppIbpw, \phm _mjv]oIcnsSptm DWvSmIp Bhnbn NsmSppIbpw sNpw. ImboI hn tXmXn IWvSp XpSptm Bhiysav tXmppshn 4 ann en ametbm emb\nbn 10 {Kmw ic ebnnpI. Cs\ Xm sNbvX emb\n CebpsS ASnbn XfnpI.        

  • ]qsSn Faj

   \m]qsSnbpsS Cfw XWvSpw CeIfpw tiJcnv NXv \oscSppI. 60 {Kmw _mtkmv Acen shůn ebnnsSp emb\n \m]qsSnbpsS Hcp en Nmdpambn tbmPnnpI. CXv ]ncn shhpambn tNp t\nmWv sNSnIfn XfnpXv.     

  • Incnbmv Faj

   Incnbmv sNSnbpsS Cebpw Cfw XWvSpw \mbn NXv \oscSppI. Hcp en \ocn 60 {Kmw F Afhn _mtkmv ebnnpI. CXmWv Incnbmv Faj. Cu Faj ]ncn shw tNv t\nnv Hmtcm en emb\npw 20 {Kmw F tXmXn shfppn \mbn Acp tNpI. CXv AcnsSpv CebpsS ASnhiv ]Xnb hn[w XfnpI.

   ap, sho, Cet XpSnb \ocqnpSnp {]mWnIsf \nb{nm CXp]Icnpw. 

  • ths - shfppn an{inXw  

   cWvSp iXam\w hocyn 1 en ths - shfppn an{inXw DWvSmpXn\v 200 annen ths, 200 {Kmw shfppn, 60 {Kmw _mtkmv Fnh thWvSnhcpw. _mtkmv NoIn FSpv Ac en Cfw NqSpshůn \Xpt]mse ebnnv 200 ann en thsbpambn tNv Cfn ]XnWw. shfppn \Xpt]mse Acv 300 annen shhpambn tNv, Acnv, ths Faj\pambn tNpI. CXv 9 en shw tNv t\nv 10 en emb\n DWvSmmw. \ocqnpSnp {]mWnIsXnsc ^e{]Zw.