Xncnv

          tIcfns Iev]hrw  

 
        
sXpt]mse BZmbap Hcp hran. Hcp sXv \m IdXv 100 hjw XnIpw BZmbw Inpw. sXns Fm `mKhpw D]tbmK{]ZamWv. AXpsImWvSmWv sXn\v
'Iev]hrw' F t]cv InnbXv. tXbpsS Huj[ hocyhpw AXv`pXIcw Xs. ]ucmWnI BNmcym \mfotIcs Ipdnv ]dXv 'kt ^em\mw tIcw {][m\w'  FmWv. `panbn hfcp hrfn hv a\pjy i_vZhpw kmao]yhpw C{Xtmfw A\p`hndnbm Ignhp asmn. IpnI Ifnv XnanpnSpw a\pjykmao]yw DnSpw sXv \mbn hfcpw. IqSpX hnfhpw Xcpw. sXv 'NXnbvnsmcp\mfpw' Fp ]dbpXpw F{Xtbm AhmWv.

         
tIcfn ImjnI hcpam\ns aqnsempw BsI hcpam\ns ]nsempw sXn \nmWv. tIc Irjnbpw A\p_ {]h\fpambn  _s
10 ew t] \nXyhrn Ignbvpp. tIcfns - ImjnI - kmnI - sXmgn taJeIfn C{Xam{Xw kzm[o\w sNepp av hnfIfn. kwKXnI CsXmssbnepw tIcfn\v tIcIrjnbnepw \mfotItcmXv]mZ\nepw C\nbpw hfsc Zqsc aptmv t]mIm Ignbpw FXmWv ]camw. ChnsSbmWv imkv{Xobamb tIcIrjnbpsS {]kn. 

       Bcp \ ssX sXcsSppXnepw ]cnNcnpXnepw sXv imkv{Xns ]n_ew IqSnbpsWvSn hnfthdpw F Imcyw Ddmmw. 

  • av     

 \ hfqdpw Pekw{KlWtijnbpap ]inacmin amWv sXn\v \v. {inv hfmsan aW anepw sXv \mbn hfcpw. ssPhhfhpw Ifnapw tNv Ccw ans Pekw{KlW tijn hnnWsapam{Xw. sNpw Icnapw sNapw Hs tIcIrjnbvv tbmPnhXs.

  • C\ At\Iw

         shv tImv Sm, eZzo]v HmUn\dn, Bam HmUn\dn, ^neookv, sImn ssN\, ImmSw, tImamS. 

         IqSmsX tIcKwK, A\KwK, eKwK, tIc{io, N{kc, tIckc, N{e XpSnb kcbn\fpw.   

  • AsXv

          Nne \ kz`mh {]ISamp sXn \npw thWw ]mIm\p hnv tX sXcsSpphm. Ccw sXn\v 'AsXv' Fp ]dbmw. CXn\v Nne eWfpWvSv.

  • Hcp hjw 80- IpdbmsX  \mfotIcw AsXn \npw InWw.

  • 30 apX 40 hsc hncn IpeIfpWvSmIWw.

  • Ftmgpw 12 IpeIfpWvSmbncnIWw.

  • tXsbmn\v 150 {Kman IqSpX sIm{] InWw.

  • sXmWvSv s]mfnm 600 {Kman IpdbmsX XqapWvSmIWw.

  • A[nIw hfqdp [mcmfw shw Inp ev hfcp sXv HgnhmWw.  

  • hnptX

     s^{_phcn  - sabv amkamWv tIcfnse hnptXm kw`cWImew.

     1 - 12 amkw hsc hnfXmhWw hnv tX. CXv IpetbmsS shn hogvcpXv.  _eap Ibdn sInbndWw. Hcp Ipebnse Fm tXbpw hnn\mbn D]tbmKnphm  Ignp Fv hcn. eWsam \mfotIcw am{Xta hnn\p]tbmKnmhp. 

  • hnp tXbvv CcnnSw

      hnp tX {]tXyIw \gvkdnbn ]mIWw. aW av \v. shsv ]mSn.  A[nI XW thWvS. \gvkdnbn \mephcn hnp tX ]mIm 1.50 ao hoXnbpw kuIcy{]Zamb \ofhpw D XS XmdmWw. XSġnSbn 75 sk.ao. hoXnbn \SmX CSWw.

      shw hnb tX ]mIcpXv. hcnI Xn 30 skoaodpw tX Xan 30 skoaodpw CSbIew \evIn, tabv - PqWn ]mImw. hnp tX ]mIptm apIfw shfnbn ImWWw.

  • \gvkdn kwcWw 

.       agbnesæn BgvNbn Htm ctWvSm {]mhiyw \\bvWw. IfI Atm \oWw. NnX ieyapWvSmbm tXbsS Nppap av 15 skoao Bgn amn, Im_mdn/ Ivtfmss]dnt^mkv XpSnb GsXnepw Hcp IoS\min\nsmSn XqIWw.

  • CXv \ ssX 

       ]mIn Bdpamkn\Iw apfbvm tX, \gvkdnbn \np \opI. \ sXn ssXbvv C\ndbp KpW Irjnimkv{Xw \njvIjnpp. 

* 9 -12 amkw {]mbw

* NpcpnbXv Bdp Hme

* 10 sk. aode[nIw ImSnI\w.

* t\cs IWtmeI hncnv HmemepI thsSp kz`mhw

* \ ]\ndap HmeI hncnp \n¡pI.

       \gvkdnbn \nv Cfp ssXI Gsd ImeXmakw hcmsX \SWw. 

  • Irjnfsamcppp

           \ hfqdpw shsnmXpamb ]dn sXv \mbn hfcpw.  {]mbamb Hcp sXns `qcn]w thcpw a\ncn \nv 120 sko ao hsc XmgvNbnsemdpWvSv.  BXn\m thcpIfpsS icnbmb hfbvv an\v 150 skoao  Fnepw XmgvNbpXv \v. 

            ]pXpIrjnbmsWn Irjnbvv esamcpWw. Ncnhp ev XpXncnv thWw ssX \Sm.  ASnbpd an ssX \SpXn\v  Bdpamkw ap]v ssXpgnsbSpnv, Ipgnsbmn\v 2 Intem Idnbpv hoXanm abpInpw.

  •   \mep coXnbn sXn ssX \Smw 

coXn

CSbIew (ao)

ssXI - Dti Fw (slIvSdn )

{XntImW coXn

7.6

198

kaNXpcw

7.6 -9

170 - 120

 

Hthen

ssXI Xn 5 ao hcnI Xn 9 ao

220

 

Ccthen

Hcp tPmUn hcnI Xnepw hcnbn ssXI Xnepw 5 ao AIehpw cWvSptPmUn hcnI Xn 9 aodpw AIew

280

  • \So Imew 

      tabv - Pq BWv ssX \Soen\v A\ptbmPyamb Imew, ag XpSptXmsS ssX \SWw. As\sbn ssXI thKn  thcp]nSnv agmetbvv IcptmsS hfcpw.   

  • Cfw ssXbvv {]tXyI c

       BZys 5 hjw ssXbvv {]tXyIw c \eIntb Xocq. Cu {]mbn {i Ipdm hfbpw Ipdbpw. \mn ]pdv ssXIsf IpImenIfn \nv cnbvpIbmWv {][m\ tPmen. ssX ImpebmsX Ipnbn sIn \npI, agbvv ssXpgnbn shw Cuv sIn \nevm CSbmmXncnpI, ssXbpsS ISbv ASpIqSp av ampI. th\Imev \\bvpI, XpSnbhbmWv cmhn[nI . 

      \v app amkw Ignv BZys hf{]tbmKw \Smw. Imbv ^ew Xcp Hmtcm sXn\pw \evIp hfns 1/10 `mKw Atm \Inbm aXn. Hcp hbv  XnIbptm hf{]tbmKw 1/3 Bmw. cWvSmw hjw 2/3 Bbn Dbmw. apmw hjw apXemWv apgph hfhpw tNmhpXv. 

      ssX sXpġv  cmkhfw cWvSv Xpey AfhpIfmbn hoXnv \evIpXmWv A`nImayw. Imehjmcmw`n ip]mi sNbvX cmkhfns apn Hcp `mKw Ipgnbn ssXbvpw Nppw C an Cfn tNWw. cWvSmas hf{]tbmKw BKv - sk]vXw_ amkamWv sNtWvSXv. Cu kabv 10 Intem ssPhhfw IqntNv IpgnbpsS D`mKw Acnndn `mKnIambn apSWw. AXn\v tijw tijn cmkhfw tNmw. IpgnbpsS Bgw IpdbpIbpw ssXI hfv hcptXmsS Ipgnbvv henw IqSpIbpw sNpw. \mephjw Cs\ sNptm ssXpgn, hfsbnb Hcp sXn\mhiyamb XSw Bbn Xocpw. 

  • hnfh\hn\v hf{]tbmKw

           PohnXImew apgph sXns DXv]mZ\tijn \ne\nm\pw DXv]mZ\w hnnm\pw hf{]tbmKw \n_amWv.

          {]mbamb sXpIġv cmkhf {]tbmKw \Sm klmbnp AfhpI t\mq.   

 

(Hcp sXn\v Hcp hjw C{X Intem{Kmw)

ss\{SP

t^mkv^dkv

s]mmjv

1. s]mXpip]mi

 

 

 

F) icmicn ]cn]me\w

0.34

0.17

0.68

_n) anI ]cn]me\w

            0.50

          0.32

1.20

2. Ip\mS ]mS

0.25

0.35

0.90

3. sNv

0.68

0.23

0.90

4. kcbn\w sXpI

 

 

 

F) PetkN\w \Inbp Irjn

1.00

0.50

2.00

_n) ag B{ibnp Irjn

0.50

0.32

1.2

ag am{Xw B{ibnv Irjn sNp {]tZifn cWvSp kabmWv cmkhfw tNtWvSXv. BsI hfns aqn cWvSv `mKw Imehjmcw`n G{]n - PqWnepw _mn apn cWvSv `mKw sk]Xvw_ - HIvtSm_ amknepw \IWw.  Fm PetkN\ kuIcyap sXn tXmpIfn aptm \mtem XhWIfmbn (G{]n - tabv - BKv - sk]vw_ - Unkw_ - s^{_phcn - amv) tNpXmWv \Xv. 

hf{]tbmKn\p kab-hnhcnI C\ndbpXv {inpI
 

hfw

amkw

Ipmbw/ tkmfsav (1 Intem)

G{]n - tabv

cmkhfw (apn Hcp `mKw)

tabv

ssPhhf

Pqembv - BKv

aojyw kt^v (AcIntem)

BKv - sk]vw_

cmkhfw (apn cWvSp `mKw)

sk]vw_

       Hcp sXns thcn GXmWvSv 82 iXam\hpw ISbve \nv 2 aodn\pnembnmWv nXn sNppXv. hf{]tbmKw sNtWvSXpw Cu `mKmWv.  sXn XSntbmSv tNv hfanScpXv. hfw apambn icnbmbn IqnIeWw.  Ipmbw/ tUmfssav Chbpw cmkhffpw Htc kabv tNcpXv.

       ssPhhf {]tbmKn\pw Xpey{]m[m\yapWvSv. A\ptbmPy kabw Pqembv - BKv amkw. sXn XSnbn \nv 2 ao hymkym[nepw 25 sk. ao Bgnepw XSw Xpdv AXn ssPhhfw hnXdWw. ssPhhfw e`yXbv\pkcnv 25 apX 50 Intem hscbmImw. NmWIw, Itmv, ]nmv, ]ne ChbmWv {][m\ ssPhhf.   

  • ]ne hfsSnI 

       sXntXmn IrjnsNm ]nb ]ne hfsSnIfmWv Imp NWv, Inepn, sUbn, h]b, IetKmWnbw XpSnbh. ag XpSpXn\p sXmpap]v ChbpsS hnp hnXdWw. sNSnI ]qphm XpSnbm BKv - sk]vw_ amkw Ch an DgpXp tNpItbm, ]ngpXv sXn XSn CSpItbm sNWw.

        sXn tXmns AXncpIfn hp]nSnnphm Ghpw tbmPn ]ne hfsSnbmWv ioasm. BZyhjw Xs CXns Ce shnsbSpmw. Hcp hjw cWvSpaqp XhW sXn\nSm ]ne Inpw. ioasmpI \Sm Ghpw A\pIqe Imew sabv - Pq amkamWv.

  • sXn\v \\ 

          ZoLImehnfbmb sXn\v \\ BXymhiyamWv. \\bvpXp sImWvSpam{Xw th\hnf Ccnbmmw.

        ans kz`mha\pkcnv Hcp sXn\p \\bvtWvSXns Afhv :

aW av

aW Ie F

F av

sNfnav

shffns Afhv (en sXsmn\v)

600

900

1300

1600

\\I Xnepff CSthf (Znhkw)

3-4

5

7-8

9

  • sImpw Infbpw

        sXns hfsbbpw DXv]mZ\sbpw sImpw Infbpw hfsc kzm[o\npp. CXv hmjnI \mfntItcmXv]mZ\w KWyambn hnnpw Fpw IWvSncnpp. aW{]tZiv I\ ag IgnbptXmsS BKkvv - sk]vw_dn Iq\IqpIbpw agbvp tijw Unkw_dn Iq\I Xn \ncpIbpw sNpw. Fm ISpapff sNan CXn\p]Icw \new DgpXnSpXmWp ]Xnhv. Fm sImpw Infbpw AanXamIcpXv. CSbnf If\nb{Wn\pap]Icnpp. 

  • sXmWvSv - Xo _v 

sXmWvSn\v AXns `mcns Bdncn shffw Dsmffphm Ignbpw. t]mscn sXmWvSn s]mmjpw DWvSv. sXntXmn sXmWvSpIpgnnm Cuw \ne\nm\pw DXv]mZ\w hnnphm\pw Ignbpw. Hcnbv sXmWvSp Ipgnnm AXns KpWw Amdp hjw \ne\n¡pw. 

sXmWvSv IpgnnSp hn[w t\mmw. cWvSp hcn sXpIġnSbn Acao Bgnepw Hc ao hoXnbnepw NmepIsfSpWw. Cu NmepIfn Dhiw apIfn hchn[w sXmWvSv \ncWw. CXn\ptijw sNdnb I\n anp aqSpIbpw sNWw. Acao Bgnepff Hcp Nmen Atm Btdm ASpv sXmWvSv C{]Imcw \ncmw. Hcp sXn\v GItZiw 600 sXmWvSv F IWn\mWv IpgnntSWvSXv. 

  • CShnfI 

        sXntXmn CShnfIf Irjn sNp k{Zmbn\v hfsc ]gapWvSv. {lkzIme hnfIfpw ZoLIme hnfIfpw Cs\ Irjn sNmw. km[mcW sXn tXmpIfn CShnfIġmhiyamb ehpw kqcy{]Imihpw kpe`amWv.

  • {lkzIme hnfI:     
            hmg, aco\n, Imn, tNv, Cn, a, a[pcngv, ]bdph 

  • ZoLIme hnfI:    
            IpcpapfIv, sImtm, ssIX,  Xopv.  

  • kpK hnfI:   
            {Kmp, PmXn, Fehw  

        Hn IqSpX CShnfI Htc kabw sXntXmn Irjn sNp '_lp\ne Irjnk{Zmbhpw' Cv {]Nmcw t\Snbncnpp. Hmtcm sXnepw IpcpapfIv ]SpI, cWvSphcn sXpIġnSbnembn Htm, ctWvSm hcn sImtm \SpI, AhbvSpmbn Cn, aco\n, ssIX ChbntesXnepw Hp \SpI. As\ sXntXmv \ndv Hv asmns\ Hcp hn[nepw _m[nbvm hn[w hnfI \SmhpXmWv. sXn tXmnse av, kqcy{]Imiw Chsb ]camh[n {]tbmP\sSpphm CXp \nanw km[npw. IjI\v CSthfIfn BZmbw InpIbpw sNpw.