Xncnv

   ImphogvN _m[n sXpIfpsS D]mZ\w hnnmw 


       ImphogvN tcmKw aqew sXns BtcmKyhpw hnfhpw IpdbpXmbn Ghpadnbmw. Fm ImphogvN _m[n sXpIġv icnbmb ]cnNcWw \IpXn ImWnp A\mbmWv tcmK hyhsb KpcpXcampXv. ]ecpw sXn\pWvSmIp Htsd IoStcmK_m[bpsS eW ImphogvNtcmKw aqeamsWv [cnnpffXmbn ImWpp. ImphogvN tcmKspdnpff Hcp eLphnhcWw C\ndbpp. 

FhnsSsbms Cu tcmKw ImWsSpp?  

tIcfnse sX PnIfn IqSpXembpWvsSnepw asm PnIfnepw ImphogvN tcmKw ImWppWvSv. IqSmsX Xangv\mSv, tKmh XpSnb kwm\fnepw Cu tcmKw IWvSp hcpp.  

{][m\ tcmK eW 

HmemepI Ccphipw \npw hmcnsbpI t]mse Dffntebvv hfbpI, afnv, HmemepIfpsS AcnIv IcnbpI FnhbmWv {][m\ tcmK eW. sNdp {]mbnepff sXpIfnepw sXnssXIfnepw  HmemepI hfbpXmWv {][m\ eWw.    

A\p_ eW    

KpW\nehmcw Ipd 'ddn sIm{]' CStbmeIfpsS afnv, HmeppI HSnp XqpI, ]qpIcnn FnhbmWv Cu tcmKhpambn _sp ImWp av eW.

tcmKImcWw  

'ss^tmmkva' F kqvmWphmWv tcmKtlXp. CXv 'ssatmmkva' t]msebpff Pohn FmWv t\scs AdnbsncpXv. 1993 se Amcmjv{S ktf\n hv CXns t]cv ss^tmmkva sbmn amn. sshdknbpw _mIvSocnbbpsSbpw CSbnepff Hcp kqva PohnbmWnXv.

tcmKhmlI  

HmemepIfpsS ASn`mKp ImWsSp td]{XnI (Lacebugs), ]p¨mSnI Fnh tcmKw ]cpXmbn sXfnbnnpWvSv.

HmeNobepw ImphogvNepw  

 Imp hogvNbpff 65--70 iXam\w sXpIfnepw HmeNob tcmKw ImWsSpp. HmeNobemWv Imv hogvNbpff sXpIfpsS BtcmKyhpw D]mZ\hpw KWyambn IpdbvpXv.

ImphogvN _m[nX {]tZifnse {]iv\  

ImphogvN tcmKw IqSpXembpff Bepg Pnbn \Snb dntmp sNbvXnpff hnhc sXvv Irjnbnse Nne ASnm\ {]iv\ hniIe\w sNpXn\v klmbnpw.

sXpI Xnepff CSbIew Hpw Xs ]mensSpn  

imkv{Xnb ip]mi {]Imcw 7.5*7.5 ao AIenemWv sXv \tSWvSXv. A{]Imcw Hcp slIvSdn 175-180 sXpI \SmhpnSv 220-247 hsc sXpI Xn 6.3 ao AIew am{Xta ]mensSppffq. CXn\p ]pdsa ]pcbnSfn av hnfIfpw hrfpw ]camh[n D]tbmKsSpmt\m, sXpIġpw av CShnfIġpw \ coXnbn hnfhv \Imt\m Cu kmlNcyw A\ptbmPya. AXn\m imkv{Xob coXnbn D]tbmK{]Zamb ]camh[n hnfhpI {IaoIcntWvSXv Hmtcm hnfbn \npw ]camh[n D]mZ\w e`nphm AXymt]nXamWv.

sXpIfpsS P\nXIta Ddmpn  

\nehnepff 10-20 iXam\tmfw sXpI 10-15 hjġv tijhpw Imbv^ew \Imhbpw HmeIfpsS Fw icmicn 15-20 Fnepw XmsgbpamsWmWv kshbn dntmv sNbvXnpffXv. e`yamb ssXI Fmw Xs \Sm {ianmsX hnizmktbmKyamb CSfn \nv sas amXrhr sXscsSpv AhbpsS hnptX imkv{Xobambn ]mInInfnv ta¯cw ssXI am{Xw \SpI. ImphogvN _m[n {]tZifn tcmK eW CmXpw sas hnfhv \IpXpamb sXpI IWvsSnbpw hnp tX tiJcnmw.

]pcbnS IrjnbpsS ImgvNmSv amdpp  

Hcp ssIsmgn F XXzn \npw sNdpInS ]pcbnSIrjn amdnsmWvSncnpp. Ipdp sXpI am{Xapffh t]mepw AhbpsS XSw Xpdmt\m, \\bvmt\m, ]pXbnSmt\m, ]nehfhnpI hnXbvmt\m, hfw tNmt\m Xm¸cysSpn. \s kvt\lnpIpw cnpIpw sNp {]IrXnbpsS hcZm\amb sXn\v A¸w  {ibpw ]cnNcWhpw \IpXn IpnIfpw hoamcpw IpSpw_\mYt\msSmw ]mfnIfmIWw. sXn tXmn ]dnhnfI, IpcpapfIv, ^ehr, Ingv h, hmg XpSnbhsbms CShnfbmbn Irjn sNmhpXmWv. Ahbvpff ]cnNcW {]tXyIw \IWsav am{Xw.

ssPh ]p\xNw{IaWns Ipdhv  

an ssPhmwins Ipdhv ImphogvN tcmKw IqSpX cqamIphm ImcWamIpp. sXn \npw ap hnfIfn \npw e`yamIp ssPhmhinjvS AhnsSs ]p\cp]tbmKnpXv av ]pjvSnsSm\pw hnfhv hnm\pw klmbnpw. sXns Hme, aS, mn, sXmWvSv apXembh antepXs Xncnv \ImhpXmWv. Hmebpw apw ancItmmn ammw, Icnbne ap ssPhmhinjvS Fnh ItmmpItbm, ]pXnbXnSm\mbn D]tbmKnpItbm sNmw. Imen hf DWvsSn NmWIhpw tKmaq{Xhpw ssPhhfambn D]tbmKnmw. kqcy{]Imiw, av, Pew Fnh ]camh[n D]tbmKnm\mbn icnbmb AIen \ sXpIġnSbn CShnfIrjn k{Zmbw A\phnv Ahbn \npff ssPhmhinjvS IqSn D]tbmKsSpmhpXmWv.

]cnNcWpdhv  

atsXmcp hnfsbbpw t]mse shffhpw hfhpw ]cnNcWhpw sXn\pw BhiyamWv.  ImphogvN _m[nX {]tZifn ChbpsS A`mhw hfsc IqSpX IWvSp hcpp.  AXn\m sXns  hfbvv Bhiyamb t]mjWhpw av ]cnNcWfpw ip]mi {]Imcw \tIWvSXmWv. \ \So hkvXp D]tbmKnptXmsSmw icnbmb ]cnNcWhpw thWvS kabv \IpIbmWv ]camh[n hnfhv e`nphm AXymhiyambnpffXv.  ZoLamb hnfbmbXn\mepw. Fm amkhpw Ipebpw Hmebpw DWvSmIpXn\mepw icnbmb ]cnNcWw sXn\v BhiyamsW Imcyn kwibantm.

IoS-tcmK_m[IfpsS cqX  

IoStcmK \nb{W Imcyn hfscb[nIw AhKWnsSp Hcp hnfbmWv sXv. sXn Ibdn acpv sNm\pff sXmgnemfnIfpsS A`mhw, hn Iqen sNehv, IoStcmKm{IaWw Xncndnbm\pff Adnhnmbva Fnhsbms CXn\pff {]mtbmKnI {]iv\fmbn {][m\ dntmpI NqWvSnmpp. HmeNob, aWvSpgp (sN sNn), sIm sNn XpSnbhsb bYmkabw \nb{nmXpw \in sXpI \ow sNmXpw A{IaWw cqamIm\pw ap IrjnbnSfntebvv hym]nm\pw ImcWamIpp. AXn\m sXns kkykwcWsnbpff Adnhpw {]mtbmKnI ]cnioe\hpw \IpXn\v Iqmb {ia AXymhiyamWv.

ImphogvN _m[n sXpIġv icnbmb ]cnNcW apdI A\phnm Ctm e`npXns 3-4 aSv hsc hnfhv hnnmsav KthjWfpw IjIcpsS ]pcbnSfn \Smnb {]Zi\tmfpw sXfnbnnpWvSv.  tI{ tXmhnf KthjW Cnyqv 1960 Ifn Xs ImphogvN_m[nX {]tZien A\phntWvS ]cnNcW apdI ip]mi sNpIpw Ah IrjnbnSfn t_m[yamnbnpffXpamWv. Fm ]e ImcWfm Ah IrjnbnSfn ]qambn \Snemm Ignnn. ImphogvN tcmKn\v ip]mi sNp kwtbmPnX ]cnNcW apdI C\ndbpp.

  •     KpWtabpff sXnssXI \Sm\p]tbmKnpI

sXns BtcmKyhpw Db hnfhpw Ddmm\pw IoS-tcmKsf sNdpm\pw CXmhiyamWv. ssXIġv thWvS coXnbnepff ]cnNcWw \IpI. 

  •     HmeNob tcmKhpw IoSm{IaWhpw \nb{npI

HmeNob _m[n \tmebpsSbpw AXn\Sppff HmeIfpsSbpw No `mK \ow sNbvX tijw 300 annendn shffn 2 anoendn tImWvSm^v Asæn 3 {Kmw ssUt Fw- 45 Ienb emb\n \tmeIfn HgnpI. AXn\v tijw 200 {Kmw BpaWen (Hcp Nnc) 20 {Kmw t^mtdv Asæn 100 {Kmw atcmnmtm Ien \tmehnfn CSpXv IoSfn \npw kwcWw \Ipw. G{]n- tabv, HIvtSm_- \hw_ Fns\ hjn cWvSv {]mhiyw CX\phnWw.

ssPhhfw Bhiyn\v \IpI  

sXsmn\v sk]vXw_-- HIvtSm_ amkfn XSw Xpdv 50 Intem{Kmw ssPhhfw  tNtWvSXmWv. NmWIw, Itmv, av ssPhhf, ]neI Fnh CXn\mbn D]tbmKnmw.

sXn XSn ]ne hfsSnbpsS hnv G{]n- tabv amkfn hnXv sk]vw_ HIvtSm_ amktmsS ]ngpXv an tNmw. apw Pehpw kwcnpXv IqSmsX IfI hfmcmXncnm\pw ]nehf {]tbmKw klmbnpp. h]b, NWv, apffnmsXmmhmSn, sImgnn, Inepn XpSnbhsbms C{]Imcw D]tbmKnmw

cmkhfw cWvSp KUpfmbn \IpI  

500 {Kmw ]mIyP\Iw 300 {Kmw `mhlw 1000 {Kmw mcw F tXmXn BWv. cmkhf {]tbmKw \StWvSXv. CXn\mbn 1.1 Intem{Kmw bqdnb 1.5 Intem{Kmw aqdn t^mkv, 1.7 Intem{Kmw ayqdntbv Hm^v s]mmjv Fnh \Imw, IqSmsX 1 Intem{Kmw aojyw kt^v IqSn \IWw. ip]mibpsS 1/3 `mKw G{]n- tabnepw , 2/3 `mKw sk]vXw_ - HIvtSm_dnepw \IWw.

sXn XSfn ]pXbnSpI  

hnhn[ CShnfI Irjn sNpIpw Ahbn \npff ssPhmhinjvS ]p\xNw{IaWw \SpIbpw sNpI.  4 Znhknsemcn 200 -250 en shffw F tXmXn PetkN\w \SpI XpSnbhbpw hnfhv hZv[npXn\v klmbnpp.

HmemepI hnScmXncnpI, Dffn Itm Nnctbm ImWmXncnpI, Htc Ipebn Xs icnbmb hennepffXpw henanmXpamb \mfntIcw DWvSmIpI XpSnb eW t_mtdm F aqeIns Ipdhv sImWvSmWv DWvSmIpXv.  CXv \nb{nphm 300 {Kmw t_mdIvkv cWvSp {]mhiyambn ssXIġpw, 500 {Kmw t_mdmIvkv cWvSp {]mhiyambn Imbvphbvpw \tIWvSXmWv. CXv cmkhftmsSmw an Cuapfftm \Imw. ap IoS-tcmKġpw Bhiym\pkcWw \nb{Wam ssIsImWw.

tcmKw hfsc cqambn Imbv^esampanmsX \n¡p sXpI  apdnp amqXv tcmK_m[ IqSpX ]ScmXncnm\pw kmnI \jvSw Hgnhmm\pw klmbnpw.