Xncnv

       PohmWp hf  


     
\t\{X sImWvSv ImWphm km[nm _mIvSocnb, BIvSnt\m ssaskpI, ^wKkpI, BKI, t{]tmtkmhI XpSn a\pjys imkv{X hnm\n\v Cpw ]cn]qambn IogSphm Ignnnm ]e kqvaPohnIfpw ImWsSp Hcp AqX {]]amWv av.  ChIfpsS \ni_vZ tkh\w \s Bcy`cnXcmpp.  kqva PohnI Cm av sNSnbpsS hfv A\ptbmPya.  kqa PohnIfn Nnebn\w, tcmK DWvSmphbmWv. Fm IqSpX kqva PohnIfpw sNSnIfpsS hfbn KWyamb kzm[o\w sNepphbmWv.  Ch sNSnIġv Bhiyap ]mIyP\Iw, `mhlw XpSnb aqeIsf e`yamp {]{Inbbn {]apJ ]v hlnpp.  IqSmsX Ch tlmtamWpIfpw apw ]pdsSphnv sNSnIfpsS hfsb XzcnXsSp pp. 

PohmWphfw

       Nne kqva PohmWpsf kPoh cq]n antem sNSnbntem DtNv DXv]mZnnp hfsfbmWv PohmWp hf Fv hnfnpXv.  asmcp hn[n ]dm ss\{SP BKncWnt\m, Pen Atebamb t^mkv^dkv ehWsf tebcq]nempXnt\m Ignhp sas kqva PohnI ASnb Hcp Dev]w. 

       kqva Pohn hfw hnn ]pcntbm Asæn an tNtm, sNSnbpsS thcp]Sen Fnpp.  C{]Imcw sNSnbpsS thcn\v kao]p kqvaPohnI an hyXnbm\ hcpn AhbpsS Fhpw ssPhoI {]h\hpw hnnpp.  X^eambn sNSnbpsS hf XzcnXsSpphmt\m, Asæn km[mcW KXnbn sNSnv hensSpphm Ignbm Nne aqeI BKncWw sNphm ]p cq]n Bn Xophmt\m km[npp. 

       PohmWphfw XmdmpXn\v 3 Xcw kqva PohnIsfbmWv D]tbmKnpXv. 

(I)       Ubtkmt{Sm^nIv PohmWp (Diazotrophic microorganisms).

(II)      t^mkvt^v embI PohmWp (Phosphate solubilising microorganisms).

(III)     ssatmssdsk  (Mycorrhizae). 

      Ubtkmt{Sm^nIv PohmWp hf 

       PohmWphffn {][m\shbmWv Ubtkmt{Sm^nIv PohmWp hf. ImcWw sNSnIġv apJyambn thWvS ]mIyP\Iw (N) F aqeIw Ch kw`mh\sNpp.  Aconse ss\{SPs\ AtamWnbbmn amphm Ignhp kqvamWp PohnI ASnbnphbmWv Ccw hf.  hmbphn ASnbnp 80 % ss\{SPs\ AtamWnbm, ss\t{Sv Fo cq]fnemn sNSnIġv Ch \evIpp.  hnfIġp thWvSXmb 30 % apX 70% hsc ss\{SPs\ Cu hf{]tbmKw aqew \evIphm km[npw.  PohmWphf DWvSmphm D]tbmKnp PohmWpfpsS kz`mhw A\pkcnv Ahsb \membn XcwXncnnpWvSv. 

A       Aktm_mIv (Azotobacter)

       Cu PohmWp (_mIvSocnbw) an kzX{ambn hknv Aco nse ss\{SPs\ AtamWnbbmn ampp.  Cu _mIvSocnb HcmWvSn Hcp slIvS en\v 20 apX 25 Intem{Kmw hsc ss\{SP \evIphm klmbnpw.  hnfIfpsS 30 % ss\{SPs Bhiyw \ndthm Chbvv km[npw.  IqSmsX sNSnIfpsS hfsb klmbnp Nnebn\w hnman\pI, CtUm AknIv Aw (IAA), Pn{_nv Aw (Gibberellic Acid) XpSnb kkytlmtamWpIfpw Dev]mZnnpp. 

D]tbmK{Iaw

Ic{]tZifn IrjnsNp GXp hnfIġpw Cu _mIvSocnb ASnb hfw D]tbmKnmw.  CXv sXv, aco\n, Icnv, ]dnI Fnhbvv Ghpw tbmPnhbmWv. 

1.   hnn ]pcp coXn 

GItZiw 250 {Kmw apX 500 {Kmw Aktm_mIvS IĨ D]tbmKnv 5 apX 10 Intem{Kmw hnv D]Ncnmw.  CXn\mbn Aktm_mIvS ASnb PohmWp hfhpw, hnpw, Bhiyn\v shhpw (500 apX 1000 anoen) tNv \Xpt]mse Cfn tbmPnnv 30 an\np t\cw XWen DWnb tijw \\hp an hnXbvmw.  Ch bmsXmcp ImcWhimepw shbnen hv DWcpXv. 

2.    thcpI app coXn 

250 {Kmw apX 500 {Kmw PohmWphfw apm en shw D]tbmKnv Ipgv ]cphnemnbXn\ptijw ]dnp \Sp sNSnIfpsS thcpI Cu emb\nbn 20 an\nv t\cw apnhtijw \Smw.  5 apX 10 Intem{Kmw hnpIfn \npw e`np ssXIfpsS thcpIfn ]pcphm CXv aXnbmIpw. 

3        an tNp hn[w 

Cu hfw DWn s]mSn NmWIhpamtbm, anc Itmpamtbm 1 : 25 A\p]mXn Ien an tNmw.  6 amkw ImessZLyap hnfIġv Cu hfw Hcp slIvSdntev 1-2 Intem{Kmapw, 6 amkn IqSpX {]mbaphbvv 2-4 Intem{Kmapw thWvSnhcpw.  Hcp hjw {]mbamb sNSn Hn\v 50 - 100 {Kmapw Hcp hjn IqSpX {]mbamb sNSn Hn\v 100 - 200 {Kmw hfw cWvSv {]mhiyambpw tNp sImSpmw. 

B       Atkmkvss]dnw (Azospirillum)0.

        Aktm_mIvSdns\tmse Aconse ss\{SPs\ AtamWnbbmn amphm Ignhp asmcp _mIvSocnbbmWv CXv. 

        Atkmkvss]dnw {_koekv, Atkmkvss]dnw ent]ms^dw ChbmWv {][m\s cWvSn\.  ssXI thcp ]nSnnm klmbnp tlmtamWpI Ch IqSpX Dev]mZnnpXn\m IpcpapfIv apXemb sNSnIfpsS IqSssXI Dev]mZnnpXn\pw CXv D]Icnpp.   

D]tbmK{Iaw 

       Aktm_mIvS D]tbmKnp Afhnepw coXnbnepw CXv D]tbmKnmw.  ]dn Irjnv ]nb Hcp PohmWp hfamWv CXv.  IqSmsX s\Irjnpw D]tbmKnmw. 

       thcp]nSnnpXn\mbn t]mfno _mKpIfn \ndbvp an Intem{Kman\v 25 {Kmw F tXmXn Cu hfw tNmw.  IqSmsX IpIfpw hnIfpw Cu hfw ASnb emb\nbn 15 an\nv t\cw apn h tijw \m ssXIġv s]sv thcp]nSnpIbpw, IqSpX ]pjvSntbmsS hfcpIbpw sNpw. 

C       ssdtkm_nbw (Rhizobium)

Aconse hmXI cq]nep ss\{SPs\ ss\t{SmPt\kv (Nitrogenase) Fsskw D]tbmKnv AtamWnbbmn amphm Ignhp Hcp ]cmZ _mIvSocnbw BWv CXv. Ch ]bdph sNSnIfpsS thcpIfn apgI DWvSmn (aqem_pZ/Root Nodules) AXn hknptm am{Xta Aco ss\{SPs\ AtamWnb cq]nemphm IgnbpIbpp.  skkv_m\nb (Sesbania) t]mep {]tXymIbn\w sNSnIfn ans apIfnep ImWvUnemWv apgI {]XysSpXv.  HmtcmXcw ]bdp sNSnbnepw hyXykvX C\w ssdtkm_nbw _mIvSocnbfmWv aqem_pZ DWvSmpXv.  Dgpv, sNdp]b, Xphcb, \neSe, tXmb, skkv_m\nb Fnhbvv {_mbnssdtkm_nbw kv]ojnkpIfmWv DNnXw.  DZmlcWambn (Brady rhizobium species cowpea group). aqem_pZ 2-3 BgvN {]mbw Fnb sNSnIfpsS thcpIfnemWv IWvSphcpXv.  Cu apem_pZ s\SpsI apdnm AhbpsS D`mKv Npa \ndw ImWphm km[npw.  seKv lotamtm_n (Leg haemoglobin) F hI hkvXphmWv CXn\p ImcWw.  Cu hkvXp aqem_pZġnSbnse HmIvknPs Afhv {IaoIcnpXpsImWvSv shfp\ndnep aqem_pZ ]b sNSnv henb {]tbmP\w sNpn.  hfbvmhiyamb ss\{SPs 70 % apX 80% hsc sNSnIġv \evIphm Cu hfn\v km[npw. 

D]tbmK{Iaw

hnn ]pcnbmWv sskm_nbw IĨ D]tbmKntWvSXv.  Hcp Intem ]bdn\v 2.3 {Kmw ssdtkm_nbw IĨ F tXmXn XteZnhks In shůntem, ic emb\nbntem Ien Ipgp cq]nemWw.  AXn\p tijw hnpI Cu an{inXhpambn Iqnbnfn XWen DWWw. 

       sNSn \v 20 - 25 Znhkw Ignm Bhiyamb ss\{SP sNSnv e`npw.  AXpsImTWvSv ASnhfambn 20 In.{Kmw ss\{SP Hcp slIvSdn\v \evIWw.  ]bdp h IqSpXembn Irjn sNbvXv Cu _mIvSocnbbpsS {]h\s NqjWw sNmhpXmWv. 

D       Atkmf (Azolla) 

       ip Pen s]mnnSv hfcpXmb ] sNSnbmWv CXv.  kmhn\ntbkv F kkyhn`mKnse Atkmsfknsb F kkyIpSpw_nsSpp. Atkmfbpambn klPohnXn Ignbp \oe lcnX BKbmWv A\m_o\ Atkmf (Anabeena azolla).  Cu BKIfpsS icocn slntdmknpI (Heterocysts) F t]cn AdnbsSp {]tXyI Xcns tImi ImWsSppWvSv.  Ccw tImifn shmWv Aco ss\{SPs\ AtamWnb Bn ampXv. Ccw AtamWnb cq]nep ss\{SPs\ Atkmf AXns hfbvv D]tbmKnpIbpw Atkmf AgpIptXmsS an tNcpIbpw sNpp.  IqSmsX t^mkv^dkv, s]mmknbw, \mIw, Ccpv Fo t]mjI aqeIfpw an\v \evIpp.   

D]tbmK{Iaw

       X\nhnfbmbn hfn s\hben tNp sImSppItbm, kwbpambn s\nt\mtSmw Irjn sNpItbm sNmw. 

       s\v-Atkmf kwbp Irjn coXnbn Rmdv \v 10 Znhkn\p tijw ]mSv slIvS Hn\v 500 Intem{Kmw F tXmXn ]pXpXmbn tiJcn Atkmf RmdpIġnSbn hnXdWw.  20 Znhkn\Iw CXv ]mSv hfv \ndbpw.  Cu kabw ]mSv \nv shw Cdn s\n\nSbn  Nhpn XmgvWw.  AXn\p tijw hoWvSpw shw Ibn Ahtijnp Atkmf hfcphm A\phZnbvmw.  Cu Atkmfbpw 30-40 Znhkn\p tijw an Nhpn XmgvtWvSXmWv.  IXncnSpXphsc Cu {]{Inb XpScmhpXmWv.  Hmtcm {]mhiyhpw Dtiw 20 Intem{Kmw hsc ss\{SP an tNsSpp.  tIcfn hncnv Irjn kabv Atkmf tNmhpXmWv. 

II       t^mkvt^v embI kqvamWp PohnI 

       an ImWsSp t^mkv^dkv ehWfn sNdnb iXam\w am{Xta Pen ebnp cq]n ImWsSppp.  Fm Nne kqva PohnIġv {]kvXpX t^mkv^dkns\ Pen ebnp cq]nemn Xophm Ignbpw.  Ccns kqva PohnIġv Nne DZmlcW NphsS sImSpncnpp.

_mIvSocnb 

  • _mknekv ]hn lmknbkv

  • _mknekv t]mfn anIvkm

  • _mknekv kpekv

  • kptUmsamWmkv ]yqnUm

  • kmtmsamtWmkv kv]ojokv   

BIvSnt\m ssaskpI

  • kvs{S]vtm ssakkv kv]ojokv

^wKkpI 

  • Bkv ]Pnekv ss\P

  • Bkv ]Pnekv ^vfmhkv

  • Bkv ]Pnekv Ahmtamdn 

       ta ]d kqva PohnI ASnb D¸ hnn ]pcn D]tbmKnmhpXmWv.   

PohmWp hf tNptm {intWvS Imcy 

  • PohmWp hf tNp an ssPhhf e`yX Ddv hcpnbncnWw.  

  • ans AXzw 6.5 \pw 7.5 \pw CSbn \ne\nWw.  

  • PohmWp hffpw cmkhffpw Hnv D]tbmKncpXv.  Cu cWvSp hffpw D]tbmKnptm NpcpnbXv 15 Znhks CSthfsbnepw DWvSmbncnWw.. 

  • PohmWp hf tN tijw sNSnIġv PetkN\w Ddp hcpWw.  

  • PohmWp hf agbpw NqSpw G¡msX kqnWw.  

  • IoS\min\nI, cmkhf FnhtbmShpw PohmWp hf kqncpXv.  

  • PohmWp hf, IĨ ]mbvn\p apIfn \ntinncnp Imebfhn\v ap]mbn (Expiry date) D]tbmKnncnWw. 

III       ssatmssdk

       sNSnIfpsS thcpIfpambn _sp ImWsSp Hcn\w Ipanfp (Fungus)IfmWv 'ssatmssdk' (Mycorrhizae).  Chbn Nnebn\ Imn hfcp ss], bqmen]vkv Fo hrfpsS thcns D]cnXenepw Nnebn\ s\v Hgnp asm hnfIfptSbpw thcns Dnembpw (DZm:  Kvtfmakv ^mknIptew (Glomus faciculatum) Kvtfmakv ssat{Imkvt]m (Glomus microspore) ImWsSpp.  an \np Pehpw, t^mkv^dkv XpSnb aqeIfpw hensSppXn Ccw IpanfpI klmbnpp.  IqSmsX sNSnIfpsS tcmK{]Xntcm[ tijn hnnphm\pw Chbvv km[npw.  C\nep IpanfpI ASnb IĨtdm, atm D]tbmKnv Irjnmv CXns\ {]tbmP\sSpmhpXmWv. 

       PohmWphf cmkhfġv ]Icambn D]tbmKnphm\pX Fm an tNp hffpsS ImcyaX hnnpXn\m cmkhffpsS D]tbmK Afhn KWyamb Ipdhp hcpphm klmbnpw.