Xncnv

        Itmv \nmWw


        Ctmgp P\kwJym h\hv A\pkcnv cWvSmbncn Ccp]nbmw BWvtSmsS
830 tImSn IhnbpsamWv A\pam\npXv.  C{Xbpw P\ġv Bhiyamb Blmcw e`yamWsan `tymev]mZ\w Ctm \nehnepXn \npw hnnWw.  `tymXv]mZ\w hnnWsan HpIn Irjnens hnkvXrXn IqpItbm Asæn imkv{Xob IrjncoXn Ahew_npItbm thWw.  CXn cWvSmas coXnbmWv {]mtbmKnIamphm km[npXv.  `tymXv]mZ\w ans ^e`qbnjvTXtbbpw AXnse t]mjIaqeIfpsS e`yXtbbpamWv B{ibnncnpXv.  kpenX hf{]tbmKneqsS ans ^e`qbnjvSX \ne\nphm km[nbvpw.  Fm A\nb{nXhpw AkpenXhpamb cmkhf{]tbmKw an\pw am\hcminv apgph\pw Hcp henb `ojWnbmbn amdnsmWvSncnpIbmWv. kpenX hf{]tbmKn ]mentWvS ]mIyP\Iw, `mhIw, mcw (N:P:K) FnhbpsS tZiob A\p]mXw 4:2:1 BbncntWvSnbncptm 1991-92 Imebfhn D]tbmKnncp N:P:K A\p]mXw 5.9:2.4:1 Bbncnp. Fm 1995-96 hjfn Cu A\p]mXw 8.2:2.5:1 Bbn hnpIbmWv sNbvXXv.  AXpsImWvSv ans ^e`qbnjvTXtbbpw kkyt]mjI aqeIfpsS e`yXbpw Ddp hcpp kpenXhpw kwtbmPnXhpamb (Balanced and Integrated) hf{]tbmKcoXnbmWv IjI A\phntWvSXv. \oXnbphpw kpenXhpw kwtbmPnXhpamb ssPh, [mXp, PohmWp hffpsS D]tbmKw sImWvSpw av Irjn coXnI sImWvSpw ans ^e`qbnjvTX \ne\npXns\bmWv kwtbmPnX kky t]mjI]cn]me\w (Integrated Nutrient Management-INM) Fp hnfnpXv. CXn\mbn Itmv, PohmWphf, asc Itmv, ]ne hfw FnhbpsS D]tbmKhpw ]bdph sNSnI CShnfbmbp, hnf]cn{Iaw Fo IrjncoXnIfpw Ahew_nmhpXmWv.

        ans ^e`qbnjvTX \ne\npXn Itmp hfġv kn{][m\amb ]pWvSv.  

  •     Itmv hfw

kq\nb{Wn, ssPhmhinjvS kqvaPohnIfpsS kmnyn Nop s]mSnbptm Inp ]ZmamWv Itmv. kkyt]mjIapeI ASnbnpXpw Im_, ss\{SP A\p]mXw (C-N Ratio) IpdhpXpamb Hcp ssPhhfamWv CXv.

  •    Itmv \nmW XXzw 

        _mIvSocnb, Ipan, BIvSnt\mssakdpI, t{]mtmtkmhI XpSnb hnh[ C\nep kpvaPohmWpfpsS {]h\^eambnmWv Itmv DWvSmIpXv.  hmbphns e`yX A\pkcnv HmIvknPs kmnynepw Akmnynepw kqvaPohmWpġv ssPhmhinjvSs hnLSnnphm km[npw.  kqvaPohmWp ssPh ]Zms hnLSnnptm DWvSmIp Duhpw Im_, ss\{SP, t^mkv^dkv, k^ apXemb aqeIfpw AhbpsS tImins tmtmmk \nmWn\mbn D]tbmKnpp.  

  •    Itmp \nmWns BhiyIX

        ssPhP\yamb AhinjvS an tNptm AXn ASnbncnp kkyt]mjI aqeI sNSnIġv DSs\ hensSpphm km[npn. am{Xhpa AXn ASnbncnp Im_, ss\{SP A\p]mXw (C-N Ratio) hfsc DbXpambXn\m sNSnIfpsS hfbvv Xm¡menIambn tZmjIcamhpIbpw sNpp. Ccw AhinjvS an tNptm kqvamWp ss\{SPs  knwl`mKhpw AhbpsS hfbvmbn D]tbmKnpXpsImWvSv ss\{SP hfsc Ipdp am{Xta e`nppq.  Cu kmlNcyw HgnhmpXn\p thWvSnbmWv ssPhmhinjvS Nobphm A\phZnv Itmmn an tNpXv.  IqSmsX an InSv NogpIptm DWvSmIphm kmyXbp hnjaqeI sNSnbpsS hfsb tZmjIcambn _m[npXn\pw CSbpWvSv.  t\scadnv, ssPhmhinjvS kqvaPohmWpfpsS klmbm Nobptm AXns hym]vXn IpdbpIbpw Im_, ss\{SP A\p]mXw Ipdv (20:1 AYhm AXn Ipdv) tZns (Humus) AhbnempIbpw sNpp. As\ Itmv ans `uXnIhpw cmknIhpw ssPhnIhpamb LS\bvv hyXnbm\w hcpn AXns ^e`qbnjvTX \ne\npp.

  •    Itmv Xmdm

        Irjntmnse AhinjvS, IfI, ]ipsmgpntebpw SuWpIfnsebpw NpNhdpI, ASpfbntebpw Iimpimebntebpw AhinjvS Icnn NWvSn XpSnb ssPhP\yamb ]Zmsf Itmv \nmWn\mbn D]tbmKnmw. Itmv ]e coXnbn \nnmhpXmWv. 

1.  \mS coXn 

       CXn\mbn 3 ASn Bgnepw 3 ASn hoXnbnepw Bhiym\pkcWw \ofnepw Ipgn FSppI. ]ipsmgpnt\mSv tNv Ipgn XmdmpXmWv DNnXw. ItmpIpgn NqSn \npw agbn \npw kwcnpXv A`nImayamWv.  ]ipsmgpn \npw \ow sNp AhinjvS, Nmcw Fnh Itmv \nmWn\mbn D]tbmKnmhpXmWv.  GItZiw Ac ASn L\n AhinjvS  hnXdnb tijw NmWIw shůn Ien XfnpItbm hnXdpItbm sNpI. Cu coXnbn IpgnbpsS D]cnXen \npw 1 ASn apX 1 1/2 ASn hsc Dbcn NpNhdpIfpw NmWIhpw amdn amdn \ndbvtWvSXmWv. Itmn\mbn D]tbmKnp AhinjvSfpsS kz`mhw A\pkcnv shw XfnpsImSppXv \nb{ntWvSXmWv. Ghpw Ahkm\w Ipgn apsImWvSv s]mXnp aqSWw. \mepapX Bdpamkn\Iw Ipgnbnse AhinjvS Itmmbn amdnbncnpw. Ipgnbvpn shw HenndmXncnphm {]tXyIw {intWvSXmWv.  NmWIns A`mh  n bqdnbtbm, AtamWnbw kt^tm tNv ssPhmhinjvSfpsS Nob XzcnXsSpmhpXmWv.  

2.   CtUm coXn (Indore method)

        Cu coXnbn Xmdmptm IpgnbpsS Bhiyan. CXn\mbn NpNhdpI Xpdmb ev hnXdnbnv NmWIw Ien XfnpI, ]ooSv CXns\ 4 apX 6 ao hsc \ofhpw 1 ao hoXnbpw 1 ao Dbchpap Iq\IfmpI.  CSbvnSbvv AhivjnS  XncnnSpIbpw   shw Hgnv \\v sImSppIbpw sNWw.  GItZiw 3 apX 4 amkw sImWvSv Ch Itmmbn cq]mcsSpp. Fm Iq\ IqpXn\pw XncnnSpXn\pambn sXmgnemfnIsf BhiyambXn\m Cu coXnbnep Itmv \nmWw sNehv IqSnbXmWv. am{Xhpa agbptSbpw NqSnsbpw ImTn\ym kkyt]mjIaqeyfpsS \jvSw DWvSmIpp FXpw CXns asmcp \yq\XbmWv.   

  _mwKvfq coXn ( Banglore method)

        SuWpIfnse AhinjvS D]tbmKnp sImWvSv Itmv \nnmhp Hcp coXnbmWv CXv. CXn\mbn 5 ASn apX 30 ASn hsc \ofhpw 5 ASn apX 8 ASn hsc hoXnbpw 3 ASn apX 4 ASn hsc XmgvNbp IpgnI FSpmhpXmWv. SuWn \npw A]w Zqsc amdn ]Snmdp `mKmbn thWw Itmp Ipgn XmdmtWvSXv.  IpgnbpsS ASnbnembn AcbSn L\n AhinjvS hnXdpI.  AXn\p apIfpembn 5 sk.ao. L\n taav hnXdpI. IpgnbpsS D]cnXen \npw 15 sk.ao. Dbcn hsc AhinjvSfpw apw amdn amdn \ndbvpI.  Ghpw Ahkm\w ap sImWvSv aqSn 5 apX 6 amkw hsc kqnm \ Itmv e`npXmWv.  KpWtaa hnnphm\mbn cmkhftfm PohmWphftfm tNp  sImSppXv \XmWv. IpgnbpsS A`mhn ta]d coXnbn AhinjvS 1 ao. Dbchpw 1 ao. hoXnbpw kuIcymap \ofnepw Iq\ Iqnbm 3 apX 4 amkn\Iw CXv Hcp hfambn D]tbmKnmhpXmWv. {Kma{]tZifn s]mXphmb Itmv \nmW ]XnIġv Cu amw Ahew_nmhpXmWv. 

  •    Itmns KpWtaa hnn

        Itmv \nmWneqsS GItZiw 20% ]mIyP\Iw (N) hmXI cq]n (AtamWnb) \jvSsSpp.  Ipgnbn AhinjvS \nt]npIbpw Ahkm\w ap sImWvSv s]mXnp aqSn kqnpIbpw sNbvXm Cu \jvSw Ipdp IqSn Hgnhmmw. kq t^mkvt^v (5%) sslt{UmtmdnIv BknUv (1%) IcnsmSn, Adps]mSn, Pn]vkw, av ChbntesXnepsamv tNp sImSpm ]mIyP\Ins \jvSw Hgnhmphm km[npw. 

        bqdnb shůn Ien AhinjvSn Xfnp sImSppXv Itmnse ]mIyP\Ins (N) Afhv Iqphm\pw t^mkv^mnIv hffmb tdmv t^mkvt^v (aqcnt^mkv/ cmPvt^mkv) tNpXv t^mkv^dns Afhv Iqphm\pw km[npp. 

        km[mcWbmbn Itmv \nnphm FSpp  kabw Ipdp  IqSn Ipdbvphm\pw KpWtaa Iqphm\pw Nne kqva PohmWpġv km[npw. Aktm_mIvS {IqHmtImw (Azotobacter chroocoecum) F _mIvSocntbbpw Akv]Pnenkv Ahmtamdn  (Aspargillus awamori), _mknekv t]mfnanIvkm (Bacillus polymyxa) Fo kqvamWptfbpw CXn\mbn D]tbmKnmhpXmWv.  ItmpIpgn \ndv Hcp amkw IgnXn\p tijamWv ta]d PohmWpsf \nt]npXv.  Itmv \nmWn kabssZLyw Ipdbvpp Fp am{Xa tZmwiw Dbn kkyt]mjIaqeIfpsS e`yXbpw Cu PohmWp Ddp hcppp.

  •    Itmv hfns {]tbmP\

  1. anse tZmwiw Dbn ans ^e`qbnjvTX hnnpp.

  2. tcmKmWp, IoSfpsS hnhn[ L, IfIfpsS hnpI Fnh Itmp \nmWn \inpp.

  3. anse AWpPohnIfpsS {]h\w XzcnXsSppp.  

  4. anse hmbpkmcw, Pe\na\tijn, Xm]\ne Fnh \nb{npp.

  5. _mjv]oIcWw aqew anew P\ejvSw Ipdbvpp.

  6. asmenv XSbpp.

  7. anse kqvaaqeIfpsS e`yX Ddp hcpn sNSnIfpsS hfsb ]cnt]mjnnpp. 

    GXv Imemhbnepw GXn hnfIġpw btYjvSw an tNnsImSpphm ]p Hcp hfamWv Itmv.  ans mbn`mhw \ne\nn hnfIfpsS Dev]mZ\w hnnphm\pXIp Itmv, Hcp km[mcW Irjnmc\v sNehp IqSmsX \nnphm ]pXpw cmkhffpsS D]tbmKw Ipdbvphm km[npXpamb Hcp Da ssPhhfamWv.