Xncnv

                  d

imkv{X\maw :  lnhnb {_koensbknkv

      kap{Z\ncp apX
500 ao Dbcw hscbp efn hfmhp \mWyhnf.  200 sk.aodn Ipdbm agbpw 21-35 Un{Kn sknt{KUv Dujva ]cn[nbpw CXn\v A\ptbmPyamWv.  Cybnse d Irjn {]tZifne[nIhpw  shpI aphbmWv.  \ohmbp F apw Nph ]inacmin apw CXn\v A\ptbmPyamWv.    

  • hwih[\

  1. \mnepw adp\mnepap AwKoIrX tmW hnp tXmfn \npw sXcsSp tmW hnpI hgn 

  2. _p ssXI hgn  

  3. Snjyp IĨ ssXI hgn 

tmWpI C\n ]dbpw {]Imcw \SWw.

  • hn`mKw 1

                  B.B.sF.sF. 105, ]n._n. 260 FnhbpsS _v tmWpI BsI IrjnehnkvXrXnbpsS 50% \SWw.

  • hn`mKw 2

                  B.B.sF.Fw.600, Pn.F.1, ]n._n.28/59, ]n._n.217, B.B.sF.Fw.703 FnhbpsS _v tmWpIfmWv Cu hn`mKn s]SpXv.  Chbn aqtm AXne[nItam D]tbmKnv Irjn ens 50% hnkvXrXnbn \Smw.

  • hn`mKw 3

                  B.B.sF.sF.5, 203, 118, 208, ]n.B.255, 261, 107, ]n._n.235, 280, 311, 86, 6/9, 5/51, Pn.F 1 XpSnb _v tmWpI AwKoIrX tI{fn \np e`np t]mfntmW hnpIfpw BsI hnkvXrXnbpsS 15% Ihnbm hn[w \SWw.

  • \gvkdn

                  ssXI, _p ssXI, _v hpv Fnh hfm thWvSnbmWv \gvkdn XmdmpXv.  60-120 sk.ao.. hoXnbnepw kuIcy {]Zamb \ofnepw XSsfmcpWw.  XSġnSbn \ShgnI \Inbm AXv hfanSoen\pw, \\bven\pw, If\oen\pw Hs klmbamIpw.

\So hkvXphns kz`mha\pkcnv \gvkdnbnse CSbIew Cs\bmWv:

ssXI DXv]mZnnphm - 23*23, 30*30, 34*20 sk.ao.  
_v w_pIġv      
   -  30*30 sk.ao.
w_vUv _npIġv  
-  60*60 sk.ao.
_v hpUv \gvkdnIġv  
- 90*90/60*120 sk.ao. 

ssXIfpsS Icpm hfbvv icnbmb kwcWhpw ]cnNcWhpw \IWw.  

  • \So coXnI 

 Cybnse d tXmfne[nIhpw Ncnhp \ncm efnemWv hfcpXv.  Ccw efn \n_ambpw ap kwcW am IqsS kzoIcnWw.
Cybnse d tXmfne[nIhpw Ncnhp \ncm efnemWv hfcpXv.  Ccw efn \n_ambpw ap kwcW am IqsS kzoIcnWw.

  • \So AIew

                  Hcp slIvSdn 450 apX 500 hsc ssXIfmWv \Sm ip]mi sNbvXncnpXv.

  • IpgnsbSpepw \ndbvepw 

           km[mcW IpgnbpsS henw 75*75*75 sk.ao.BWv.  ans kz`mhw A\pkcnv CXn sNdnb hyXymkfmImw.  Ipgn Xmdmptm, taav Hcp `mKpw ASnav adp`mKpambn amnbnSWw.  Ipgn IgnbpnStmfw taap]tbmKnp Xs \ndbvWw.  IpgnbpsS apI`mKv 20 sk.ao. hscbp apambn hfw IqnepXpw \XmWv.

  •   \So coXnI

i)          hnp ]mI ----IrjnbnSn hnp ]mIpXv A{X hnPbIcambn IWvSnn.

ii)        w]v \So --\gvkdnbn Xmdmp ssXI, a\ncn \nv 45-60 sk.ao. Dbcn hv apdnp \onbnv \SpI.

iii)       t]mfn_mKv ssXI :  t]mfn_mKv ssXI cWvSp hn[n Xmdmmw. 

(F) ssXI t]mfn_mKn hfpI.  Fnv bYmkabw Ah apIpf\w \SpI.  amn \SpI.

(_n) {Ko _nMv \Snb w]pI icnbmb henap t]mfn_mKp Ifn amn \SpI.  ]noSv Irjn etv ampI.

cWvSmbmepw ssXn 2-3 hsctbm 6-7 hsctbm CeppI DWvSmIptm ssX Cfn \SmhpXmWv .

iv)  _v w]pI \So :

                  \gvkdnbn hfnsbSpp ssXI apIpf\w \SpI, apIpf\w \Snb knbn \nv 8 sk.ao. \ofn apdnp \onbnp thWw CXv amn \Sm.

  • BhcW hnf                

  ]bdp hns] BhcW hnfI d tXmn Irjn sNpXn\v ip]mibpWvSv.  ]yqtnb, ayqpW FnhbmWv km[mcWbmbn D]tbmKnp BhcW hnfI.  BhcW hnfIfpsS hnv XmcXtay\ Inbp ]pdwtXmtSmSp IqSnbpXmbXn\m Ch ImeXmakanmsX apfp InpXn\v hnv, BknUv sImWvtSm NqSpshw sImWvtSm Hs ]cnNcnpXv \XmWv. 

  • ]pXbnSo

                  ssXIġp Nppw AhbpsS hfbpsS {]mcw` Ln Icnbnetbm ]ptm BhcW hnfIfpsS AhinjvStam Hs sImWvSp ]pXbnSmw.  hcĨbpsS BLmXn \np ssXIsf cnm \hw_ amkw ]pXbnSpXmWp \v. 

  • hf{]tbmKw 

                  hfbpsS aqp {][m\ LfnembmWv hf{]tbmKw \StWvSXv;  \gvkdn, sNdpssXI, hf ac. 

  • \gvkdn

                  \gvkdnbn XSw Xmdmptm 100 NXpc{i aodn\v 3.5 Intem tdmv t^mkvt^pw 25 Intem Itmpw ASnhfambn tNWw.  slIvSdn\v, ss\{SP, t^mkv^dkv, s]mmjv, aojyw HmssUv FnhbpsS an{inXw 10:10:4:1.5 F A\p]mXn 2500 In.{Kmw ssX \v 6-8 BgvN Ignbptm \IWw.  (AXmbXv 100 NXpc{i ao \gvkdn XSn\v 25 In.{Kmw) taev]d an{inXns 100 In.{Kmw XmdmWsan, 48.5 In.{Kmw AtamWnbw kt^v, Asæn 22 In.{Kmw bqdnb, 34.5 In.{Kmw tdmv t^mkvt^v, 7 In.{Kmw ayqdntbv Hm^v s]mmjv 10 In.{Kmw hmWnPy aojyw kt^v Asæn 4 In.{Kmw amsskv FnhbmWv D]tbmKntWvSXv.  an{inXns BsIbfhv 100 In.{Kmw Bphm GsXnepw Hcp ^n IqsS tNpI.

  •   _Uv hpUv \gvkdn

  1. Hcp slIvSdn\v \mbn s]mSn (100 sajvhenn) 150 In.{Kmw tdmv t^mkvt^v tNpI : AXmbXv \gvkdnbn XSw Xmdmp kabv ASnhfambn 100 NXpc{iaodn\v 1.5 In.{Kmw tdmv t^mkvt^v. 

  2. _Uv hpns BZyhnfbvv, cWvSp XpeyXhWIfmbn 10:10:4:1.5 F an{inXw 250 {Kmw \IpI.  CXn BZytXv ssX \v 2-3 amkw Ignpw cWvSmatXv 8-9 amkw IgnpamWp \tIWvSXv.  

  3. 10:10:4:1.5 F ss\{SP, t^mkv^dkv, s]mmjv, aojyw an{inXw 125 {Kmw HhWbmbn \Imw.  \v 2-3 amkw IgnmWv CXv \tIWvSXv. 

  • {]mb]qnbmIm d ac

                  Ipgn \ndbvp kabv Ipgnsbmn\v 12 In.{Kmw Itmpw 175 {Kmw tdmv t^mkvt^pw tNp \ndbvpI.

                  BZys \mephjmew 10:10:4:1.5 F cmkhf an{inXw Hcp ssXbvv 225, 450, 450, 550, 550, 450, 450  {Kmw F tXmXn bYm{Iaw 3, 9, 15, 21, 27, 33, 39 Fo amkfn \IWw. Amas hjw apX SmnMv XpSpXp hsc 12:12:12 F A\p]mXnep F:]n:sI an{inXw slIvSdn\v 125 In.{Kmw F tXmXn G{]n-tabnepw sk]vw_-HIvtSm_dnepw \IWw.  Cu an{inXns 100 In. {Kmw Xmdmm 26 In.{Kmw bqdnb, 54 In. {Kmw tdmv t^mkvt^v, 20 In. {Kmw ayqdntbv Hm^v s]mmjv Fnh thWw.  Cu hf{]tbmKw BZyImefn thWvS{X ]pXbnSoepw BhcW hnfIfpap tXmnemWp thWvSXv.  Fm CXp cWvSpanm tXmfn 15:10:6 F F.:]n:sI. an{inXw slIvSdn\v 200 In.{Kmw F tXmXn G{]n-tabnepw sk]vw_-HIvtm_dnepw \IWw.  Cu an{inXw Xmdmm 33 In.{Kmw bqdnb, 50 In.{Kmw tdmv t^mkvt^v, 10 In.{Kmw ayqdntbv Hm^v s]mmjv Fnhbpw 7 In.{Kmw ^ndpw IqsS tNWw.

  • SmnMv \Sp d acġv

                  H tUmkmbn G{]n-tabntem A cWvSp Xpey XhWIfmbn G{]n-tabv, sk]vw_-HIvtm_ Fo kabfntem 10:10:10 F F:]n:sI an{inXw slIvSdn\v 300 In.{Kmw F tXmXntem Hcp acn\v 900 {Kmw F tXmXntem \IWw.  Cu an{inXw 100 In.{Kmw XmdmpXn\v 22 In.{Kmw bqdnb, 50 In.{Kmw tdm t^mkvt^v, 17 In.{Kw ayqdntb Hm^v s]mmjv. 11 In.{Kmw ^n Fnh D]tbmKnWw.

                  ta¸d hf an{inXn\p ]Icw C\ndbp t{KUnep an{inXfpw D]tbmKnmw.  15:15:15, 17:17:17, 19:19:19 Fnhbnsemv  ChbpsS Afhv bYm{Iaw 200 In.{Kmw, 175 In.{Kmw, 160 In.{Kmw/slIvS F tXmXnemWv.

                  Atamt^mkv (20:20) F an{inXw Hcp slIvSdn\v 150 In.{Kmw F tXmXn 50 In.{Kmw ayqdntbv Hm^v s]mmjpambn Ienbpw \Imw.  {]mb]qnbmb d acġv ap]cntim[\bpsSbpw Ce ]cntim[\bpsSbpw ASnm\n hf{]tbmKw \SpXmWp \v.  CXn\p thWvS kuIcyw tImbs d dntkv Cnyqv Hm^v Cybnepw ASq, Imncn, ]me, aqhmp]pg, Xrq, tImgntmSv, s\SpamSv FnhnSfnep {]mtZinI KthjW imeIfnepw e`yamWv.

                  Ipdnv :  aojyns A`mhspSv d ac Ce afnv {]ISamp tXmfn sk]vw_-HIvtm_ amkw slIvSdn\v 50 In.{Kmw F tXmXn aojyw kt^v tNWw.

  • IfIfpw If\nb{Whpw

                  IyqWnv ], s]nkyqw kv]ojnkv, em\ AIypentb, ssatamk ]yqUn, Cw]tdknen{Un FnhbmWv {][m\ IfI.  BZyImev If\nb{Ww ^ehmm Ghpw \ hgn BhcW hnfI hfpI FXmWv.  If\min\nI D]tbmKnpw If \nb{Ww \Smw.

apfbvpXn\p ap]v :  Ubqtdm, knamkn, sImsmdm, emtm

apfp Ignv :  ]mcmIzmv, 2,4 - Un, sst^mtkv

If\min\nIfne[nIhpw BhcW hnfIġv tZmjIcamWv Fp IWvSncnpp.  AXn\m Ah acw \ncnp hcnIfn am{Xta {]tbmKnmhq.

  • hnfshSpv  

                  d acn 30-40% emIvkv BWv ASnbncnpXv.  CXv d XSnbn \Sp SmnneqsS e`npw.

  • SmnMv

                 _v sNbvXv hfp acfn _v knbn \npw 125 sk.ao. Dbcn XSnbvv 50 sk.ao. IShw hcptm SmnMv XpSmw.  SmnMv \Sm\ptinp {]tZis 70 % acfpw Cu hfmLn FnbncnWw.  Fm ssXmbn \p hfp acġv knbn \nv 50 sk.ao. Dbcn 55 sk.ao. IShamWp thWvSXv.

  • SmnMv kabhpw CSthfbpw 

                  ]pXpXmbn SmnMv XpSm tbmPn amkw amv BWv.  AXncmhnse SmnMv \SpXmWv \Xv. Xmaknp Smv sNptm IdbpsS Afhv Ipdbpw.  km[mcW KXnbn _v ac A[ hrmImcn HnShnv Znhkhpw (12 s d/2) ssXI hfnsbSpp ac A[hrmImcn aqp Znhknsemcnepw (1/2 s d/3) Smv sNmw.  B.B.sF.sF. 105, t]mep AXypev]mZI tmWpIfpsS Imcyn aqp Znhkw CShnp SmnMv (1/2 s d/3) BWp \Xv.  

kkykwcWw  

AIme Ce sImgnn  

                tcmKImcn ss^tm^vtXmd anbUn F Ipan BWv.  

  • eW

                  sXp ]Snmd agmev ImbvI AgpIpp. tcmK_m[nXamb CeI htXmXn ] \ndambncnptmtgm sNpIe Nphp \ndamIptmtgm sImgnbpp.  CeWvSn Id ]nqSnbncnpXpw ImWmw.  

  • \nb{Ww

                  ag XpSpXn\pw ap]v CeIfn 1% hocyap t_mtUm an{inXw XfnbvpI. Hcp slIvSdn\v 3000-4000 en emb\n thWvSn hcpw.

]q tcmKw

        HboUnbw slhntb F IpanfmWv tcmKtlXp.  

  • eW

                  P\phcn - amv ImeLn ]pXpXmbn DWvSmIp Xfncp IfnemWv tcmK_m[ ImWpXv. XfncneIfn Nmcw ]pcWvSXp t]msebmbn NpcpWvSv, Npnpfnv hv Dntebvv hfbpp.  CeI sImgnv hogpp.  aq[\ymhbn {]mbamb CeIfn shfp ]pnI {]XyamIpp.  tcmKw _m[n ]qfpw ImbvIfpw sImgnbpp.  

  • \nb{Ww

                  sNdnb ssXIġv sh_n k^ (0.2%) Asæn Ims_Umknw (0.05%) cWvSmgvN CShnp XfnbvpI. {]mb]qnbmb acġv HcmgvNtbm cWvSmgvNtbm CShnv aqp apX Ap XhW hsc k^ s]mSn hnXdpI.  70:30 F A\p]mXn k^dpw Sm¡v s]mSnbpw Ien Hcp {]mhiyw Hcp slIvSdn\v 11-13 In.{Kmw F tXmXn {]tbmKnmdpWvSv.

Cepn  

                  sImssdkvt]md Imkntmf F IpanfmWv tcmKtlXp.  

                  \gvkdnIfn \hw_-tabv amkfnepw {][m\ tXmfn P\phcn-tabv amkfnepw Cu tcmKw hym]Iambn ImWpp. {_u \ndn a[y`mKw hnfdnbXp t]mep henb ]pnI CeIfn {]XysSpIbpw Ah s]mSnv IpgnIfmbn amdpIbpw sNpp.  {]mb]qnbmb acfn Ce sImgnnen\p tijw hcp ]pXnb XfncneIsf tcmKw _m[nm\p km[yX hfsc IqSpXemWv. Ce sImgnnepw sImpWhpw DWvSmIpw.  

  • \nb{Ww:

                  \gvkdnbn XW \IpXv tcmK_m[ Ipdbvpw.

                  amtmsk_v (0.2%) Asæn Ims_Umknw (0.05%) Asæn 1% t_mtUm an{inXw Chbnsemv Xfnmw.  {]mb]qnbmb acfn Fbn Iemhp tIm HmIvkntmssdUv 1:5 F A\p]mXn tIm HmIvkntmssdUpw Fbpambn Ien CeIġv Cfw ] \ndambncnptm Xs ssat{ImssWkvUv kvt{]bnMv \SpXv ^ehmWv.

]nv tcmKw

                  tImnkyw kmaWnIf F IpanfmWv tcmKImcWw.

                  3-12 hjw {]mb]cn[nbnep hrfmWv tcmKn\v s]sv hnt[bamIpXv.  XSnbn shtbm ]ntm \ndn Ipan hf ImWpIbpw AXn \nv {ItaW Id DudnbndpIbpw sNpw;  Cu `mKw AgpIn, ]ns DWn AhnSw hv s]mpp.  CXpambn _s inJcfnse CeI DWn sImgnbmsX acnXs \n¡pp.  

  • \nb{Ww

                  tcmKkm[yX IqSpXep efn tmWpIġv {]Xntcm[ \S]Sn F \nebn t_mtUm an{inXw XfnbvpItbm t_mtUm Ipgv ]pcpItbm sNmw.  tcmK_m[bpsS XpSn tcmKw ]nSns en\p 30 sk.ao. apIfnepw Xmsgbpambn t_mtUm Ipgv ]pcpI.  1% AtamWntbUv Idbn 2% ss{SUvtam^v tNXpw \XmWv.  ss{SUvtam^v (1%) Asæn ssXdw (0.75%) Fnhbnsemv ]nUnhn, ssN\m t, shw Fnhbpambn 1:2:4 F A\p]mXn Ienb an{inXw hfsc ^ehmsWv IWvSncnpp.

                  ssXdw (0.75%), s]t{Smfnbw kwbpfmb dtImv, tkmvtImv Fnhbpamb Ienbpw tcmK\nb{Wn\p ]tbmKnmw.

                  Pqsse - sk]vw_ amkfn tXmfn icnbmb \ncoWw \Sn tcmK_m[ IsWvSm {ianpI.  KpcpXc tcmK_m[bp inJc bYmkabw apdnv \on Xobnp \innpI.

XSn AgpI

                  ss^tm^vtXm kv]ojokv BWv tcmKtlXp.

                  agmev d ac Smv sNptm, shp ]bn IpgnIfpWvSmIpIbpw AXv {ItaW AgpInbpWpIbpw sNpp.  \oWvS Idp hcIfpw CtXmsSmw ImWmw.  ]pXnb ]bpw KpWIcambncnpIbn.  

  • \nb{Ww

                  SmnMv ]m\epw apw 0.375% hocyap amtmsktm 0.08% t^mkvt^mdkv BkntUm sImWvSv Hmtcm BgvN CShnv IgpIpI.  AgpInb XWvSn NpcWvSn amn GsXnepw Ipan \min\n ]pcn s]t{Smfnbw tImuWvSv D]tbmKnv apdnhpsIpI.

        ]mv Iym, DWw, inJcagpI XpSnbhbmWv ap tcmK.

    i¡ {]mWnI, aoenaq, NnX, tImIvtN^ ]pgp, aWvUcn, Hv, Fen XpSnbhbpamWv dIrjnbpsS i{Xp{]mWnI.  Chsb Xncndnv DNnXamb \nb{W \S]SnI kzoIcnWw.