Xncnv

       hm\ne Irjn

kpK {Zhyfn {][m\tadp 'h\nen's DdhnSamb hm\nebpsS Irjn tIcfnse Imemhbvpw an\pw hfsc tbmPnXmWv.  kpK hnfIfpsS cmPIpamcn (Princess of spices) Fv AdnbsSp Cu hm\nebpsS ImbvIfn \npw e`np 'hm\ne Fʳkv' AYhm 'hm\nen' hymhkmbnI {]m[m\yap DXv]amWv.  HmnUv hns] hm\nebpsS imkv{Xob \maw hm\ne m\nt^mfnb B\v{Sqkv (Vanilla planifolia Andrews) FmWv.  Ipd ]cnNcWn IqSpX BZmbw Xcp hm\ne Irjn hymhkmbnI hfbvpw hgnsbmcppp.   

tNmtev, sFkv{Iow, tIpI apXemb t_dn km[\ġv KsshinjvSw ]IcpXv hm\ne Fʳkns kmn[yamWv.  CXn\p ]pdta kpK hkvXpfpsS \namWn\pw CXv D]tbmKnpp.  hntZi hn]Wnbn \ UnamUp {]IrXnZamb hm\nebpsS BtKmf BhiyIX 30.000 sa{SnIv S BWv.  BtKmf DXv]mZ\w shdpw 3000 sa{SnIv S am{XamWv.  ASp Imew hsc IrXyambn \nnp hm\ne kmWv D]tbmKnncpXv.  Fm Cu Ir{Xna hm\nebvv {]nbtadpIbmWv.  CXns apJy DdhnSw hm\ne sNSnbpsS ImbvIfmWv. 

HmntUkntb (Orchidaceae) IpSpw_nsSp hm\nebn AXntesd kv]ojnkpI DsWvSnepw hymhkmbnI {]m[m\yaph aqv kv]ojnkpIfmWv.

  • hm\ne {]m\nt^mfnb B{Uqkv (Vanilla planifolia Andrews) AYhm hm\ne {^m{Kkv kmenkv_v Atakv (V. fragrans Salisb Ames).

  • hm\ne s]mtmW joUv (V. pompona Schiede)

  • hm\ne XmlnsXknkv sP.U_vfyq.aq (V. tahitensis J.W.Moore)

Chbn Ghpw IqSpX {]Npc {]NmcapXv hm\ne m\nt^mfnb  F kv]ojnkmWv.  

  Ncn{Xw

hm\nebpsS DdhnSw FhnsSbmsW\\v hyamb Adnhnsænepw 'aUKmkvI' Cu IrjnbpsS amXrcmPyambn IWmsSpp.  ]Xn\mdmw \qmWvSn kvs]bn\n hm\ne {]NmcnepWvSmbncpXmbn AdnhpWvSv.  1602- Fenk_v cmn `W ]Zmġv cpNn hnm\qw kpK ]cnafn\pambn hm\ne D]tbmKnncpt{X.  17-mw \qmWvSn {^mknepw, 1819 dobqWnb\nepw hm\ne Fn. 

Cybn BZyambn hm\ne FnbXv 1935- IpmenemWv.  Cunym I\n Ipmev AhcpsS kpK hnf tXmn hm\ne \p.  ]noSv sX tIcfw, Xangv\mSv, IpSIv FnhnSfnsensbnepw Cybn CXn\v henb {]NmcapWvSmbn.  hoWvSpw 1940- tIcfn hb\mSv Pnbnep Aehben awKewImv F Ftn 5 G ev hm\ne Irjn XpSn.  Cybnse Xs BZys Ghpw henb hm\ne tXmw AXmbncnpw.  AhnsS \nv sXmSpp Aehb ImjnI KthjW tI{nepw Nne IjIcpsS tXmnepw CXns Irjn XpSn.  hb\mnse apw Imemhbpw hm\ne Irjnv Ghpw A\ptbmPyamIbm AXns hnIk\ kmyXIfpw kmnI {]m[m\yhpw IWnseSpv Cy ImjnI KthjW Iuknens kmnI klmbtmsS 1960- Aehb ImjnI KthjW ]Xn Bcw`np.  ]noSv CSpn Pnbnse abnemSpw]mdbnepw Irjn Bcw`np. 

hm\ne Cybn Fnbnv 100-150 hjamsbnepw 1945-1950 ImeLnemWv hmWnPymSnm\nep Irjn XpSnbXv.  Ctm IWmSIw, tIcfw, Xangv\mSv kwm\fnepw eZzo]nepambn Dtiw 100-150 slIvStdmfw ev hm\ne Irjn sNpp.  Cy IqSmsX aUKmkvI, CtUmt\jy, saIvkntm, Pmhm, audojykv, Xlnn, skbvjkv. Pssam, Kzmname, {_kn FnhnSfnemWv hm\ne Irjn ImcyambnpXv. 

{]Xnhjw GItZiw 3000 S hm\ne ImbvIfmWv Fm Dev]mZI cmPyfpw IqSn Dev]mZnnpXv.  CXn ]IpXnbpw aUKmkvIcn \nmWv.  CtUmt\jy, tImtamtdm, dobqWnb XpSnb cmPyfmWv ap {][m\ Dev]mZI.  hm\ne CdpaXn sNp cmPyfn Atacn, {^mkv, P\n, Pm FnhbmWv ap]n \n¡pXv. Amcmjv{S hn]Wnbn {]Xnhjw GXmWvSv 30,000 S hm\ne ImbvI Bhiyambn hcppWvSv.   

Imemhbpw apw  

NqSpw Cuhpw Ie ImemhbmWv hm\ne Irjnp tbmPnXv.  CXns icnbmb hfbvv `mKnIamb XWepw (A]Xv iXam\w) BhiyamWv.  Xpdmb ev Irjn sNbvXm Cebpw XWvSpw afnpIbpw IcnbpIbpw sNpp.  InWen IcpnmsX hfcpIbpw ]mWvUqcamIpIbpw (Etiolation) sNpp.  kqcy civanIfpsS ]IpXn am{Xw XW acnIfneqsS Acnndn sNSnbn hogpXmWv Ghpw A\ptbmPyw.

kap{Z \ncn \nv 1200 ao hsc Dbcap efn hm\ne Iyjn sNmw.  {]Xnhjw 200 apX 300 sknao hsc hjm\p]mXw e`np Xcn CSbvnsS ag e`np sImWvSncnpXpw km[mcW Xm]\ne 21 apX 31 hscbp eamWv hm\ne Iyjnv Ghpw Daw.

tIcfnse Imemhbn Bhiyamb XWtemSpIqSn X\nhnfbmtbm, sXv, IapIv tXmfn CShnfbmtbm hm\ne Iyjn hnPbIcambn sNmhpXmWv. aW tN ]inacmin (kmn tSma) ap apX sNp av hscbp hyXykvX an\fn hm\ne Iyjn sNmw.  Fm ssPhmwiw IqSpXepXpw hfqdpXpw \ohmbpXpw Pemiw \ne\n¡pXpamb Xcn anemWv.  hm\ne Ghpw ]pjvSntbmsS hfcpXv.  an Pemwiw sIn\n¡phm ]mSn.

\So hkvXp

\So hkvXphmbn D]tbmKnpXv \ aq XWvSpIfmWv. ]Xn\p apX Ccp]Xp hsc CSapp \ofap XWvSp hNv#m sNdnb XWvSpItfm thKw Imbv ]nSnpw.  Gm C{Xtbsd \ofap XWvSpI e`nphm {]bmkamWv.  e`yX A\pkcnv \ofw IpdbvpItbm IqpItbm sNmw. NpcpnbXv 5 apX 6 appItfmSp IqSnbXpw 0.5 apX 1 ao hsc \ofapXpamb hnf XepI \SpXn\mbn D]tbmKnmw.  Chbn cWvSv appI an\Snbn hc coXnbn \SWw.  sNdpXpw aqmXpamb XepItfm, ssXItfm \SpXv Imbv ]nSnw sshIm ImcWamIpw.  \SpXn\p apv XepI Hcp iXam\w hocyap t_mtUm an{inX emb\nbn apnsbSpv \SpXmWv \Xv.

t]mfn _mKn thcp ]nSnn \So hkvXp XmdmpXn\v cWvSv CSapp XWvSmbmepw aXnbmIpw.  Snjyq IĨ AYhm tImi {]P\\ coXnbnepw ssXIfpev]mZnnmw.  \Sm\p ssXIġv NpcpnbXv 30 skoaoscnepw \ofw DWvSmbncnm {inWw. 

Xmpac   

]Sp hfcp hnfbmbXn\m Xmp ac hm\ne Iyjnv AXymhiyamWv.  \Sp ew \mbn Infv ]cphsSpn hcnI Xn 2.5 apX 3 ao AIenepw Hcp hcnbn ac Xn 2 ao AIenepw Xmpac \SWw.

hnPbIcamb hm\ne Iyjnv `mKnIamb XW AXymhiyambXn\m Xmnt\msSmw XWepw \Ip ac sXcsSpWw.  ]cp]cp sXmenbpw sNdnb CaIfpXpw DbcnemIpXn\p appXs imJ s]mpXpamb acfmWv tbmPnh.  Xmp acġv ]Icw acqWpItfm tIm{Iov XqWpItfm D]tbmKnmw.  Fm XW {]tXyIw \tIWvSn hcpw.

ioasm ({KnendknU amIpte) sh apcpv (sFXocnb entXmkv{]m) ImmhWv (Pmvtdm^m Imdkv) IpnsIw (tadnb B]m) a_dn (tamdkv B^m) XpSnb ac Xmp acfmbn ]nSnnmhpXmWv.  ChbpsS IpI \p ]nSnnptm 5 sko aosdnepw hymkhpw Hc apX cWvSp ao \ofhpw DWvSmbncnWw.  hm\ne \SpXn\v Bdp amkw apv Xmp acmepI \SWw.  th\en\p tijap CSag Inptm IpI \SpXmWv \Xv. 

\So kabhpw coXnbpw  

agbpw DWpw A[nIanm ImemhbmWv hm\ne sNSn \Sm Ghpw ]nb kabw.  ag s]bvXv ap XWpptXmsSmw I\ agbnm kabamb HmKv-sk]vw_ amkfn \SpXv ssXI \mbn ]nSnp Inm klmbnpw.

Xmp acfn \nv HcSn AIenemWv hm\ne \tSWvSXv.  \Sp XWvSns Ghpw ASnbnep aqp \meneI apdn tijw \Sm\p]tbmKnWw.  hm\nebpsS thcpI ans D]cnXenemWv hfcpXv.  CXnem 6 Cn IqSpX \new CftWvS Bhiyan.  IpgnsbSpv \So hj Imev shw sIn \np Nobm\nSbmIpw.  AXpsImWvSv \ncmbv an \SpIbmWv \Xv.

Xmp acns Nphnse taav amn AXn\pnembn XWvSv \nt]nv _mn XWvSv actfmSp tNv sIWw.  \ DS Nphn Icnbnetbm Nhtdm D]tbmKnv ]pXbnSWw.  av hcWvSXmsWn sNdnb tXmXn PetkN\w \IpXv XWvSpI t\Kw ]nSnp InpXn\p klmbnpw.  thcp ]nSnpXn\pw apf s]mpXn\pw Hp cWvSp amkw thWvSn hcpw.

]cnNcWw  

BgvNbnsemcn hm\ne tXmn ]cnNcWw BhiyamWv.  tXmn IfI \ow sNptXmsSmw ]pXbnS, hnI sInbpdn, IpdpsI ]S, Bhiyanm XepI apdnp am, XW {IaoIcWw Fnh BhiyamWv.