Xncnv

  hmg (aqkm kv]ojokv) :    


       DjvW taJem XmgvhmcIfn hmg \mbn hfcpp.  IqSmsX IS \ncn \npw
1000 ao Dbcnepw hfmw.  1200 ao Dbcn hsc hfmsanepw hf IpdhmWv.  NqSv 27 Un{Kn skjykv hscbmWv \Xv.  \ hfqdpXpw, PetkN\w e`yamIpXpamb av tbmPnXmWv.

  • Imemh

agme Irjn    :        G{]n - tabv. 

PetkN\ Irjn :         BKv - sk]vXw_ 

        {]mtZinI Imemhb\pkcnv \So kabn amw hcpmhpXmWv.  I\ agmepw, I\ th\Imepw \So HgnhmtWvSXmWv.  Ipe hcp kabv Db NqSpw hcĨbpw Hgnhmm\mbn \So kabn hyXymkw hcpWw. 

  • C\ :- 

1)        t\{ - s\Spt\{, kmkn_m, sNmen, tImS. 

2)       ]gpn\p]tbmKnph - tamkvtacn, tdm_, Pbv KhW, Uzm^v ImhUnjv, sNZfn, ]qh, ]mfbtImS, Rmenqh, AarXvkmK, tKmansj, Iqchn, ]qn, Ipnm I, ssN\men, ZqXvkmK, _n B.Fkv - 1, _n.B.Fkv - 2 

3)       ImbvIdn C\ :-  sam, _ok, ImntIe, t\{]Sn (G]Sn).

       Rmenqh, tdm_, _nBFkv - 1, _nBFkv - 2 Fnh sXn tXmn CShnfbmbn agmepw IqSmsX PetkN\w \Snbpw IrjnsNmw.  ZXvkmK C\ġv {][m\ IoStcmKsf {]Xntcm[nm\p IgnhpWvSv.  Db {]tZifn t_mUvsekv Aīmt^mUv C\ IrjnsNmhpXmWv. 

  • \new Hcp

        \new DgpItbm, InfbvpItbm sNbvXXn\ptijw 50*50*50 sknao hennep IpgnI FSpWw.  Xmgv {]tZifn XnIsfSpv hmg \Smw.

  • Iv XncsSp

        3-4 amkw {]mbap AkpJanm kqNnIpI \Sm\p]tbmKnmw.  t\{ C\fn hmgXS 15-20 sknao am{Xw \nn shnamWw.  IqSmsX ]gb thcpIfpw, NX `mKfpw sNn amWw.  Chbn NmWIhpw Nmchpw ]pcnshbnev 3-4 Znhkw DWnbXn\ptijw XWen 15 Znhkw hsc \SpXn\p ap]mbn kqnp hbvWw. 

  • \So AIew :- 

C\w

AIew (ao)

IpIfpsS Fw/slIvS

]qh

2.1 * 2.1

2260

sNZfn

2.1 * 2.1

2260

]mfbtImS

2.1 * 2.1

2260

sam

2.1 * 2.1

2260

t\{

2.0 * 2.0

2500

t{Kmansj

2.4 * 2.4

1730

tdm_, tamkvtacn, kzm^vImhUnjv

2.4 * 1.80

2310

  • \So

        IpgnIfpsS a[ymbn IpI Ips\ \SWw.  Ins Nppap av \mbn Aan thWw \Sm. 

  • hf{]tbmKw : 

(1)          Itmv, ssPhhfw Asæn ]nehfw Fnh Hcp In\v 10 Intem F tXmXn \Sptm \IWw. 

(2)         ]mIyP\Iw :  `mhIw : mcw Fnh Xmsg ]dbp coXnbn \IWw.  ({Kmw/sNSn/hjn) 

t\{  (PetkN\ Irjn)

     190 :      115 :     300

ap C\  (anse hfqdv A\pkcnv)

  160-200 : 160-200 :  320-400

]mfbtImS (agme Irjn)

    100 :     200 :    400

]mfbtImS (Ip\mSv)
       
BZy \So
        BZy Ipnhnf
        cWvSmw Ipnhnf


  100 :     200 :    400
  150 :     200 :    800
  150 :     200 :    800

        BZy\Soen\ptijw cWvSp Ipnhnf Irjn sNbvXm ]camh[n em`w e`npw.  Hcp Nphn 2 IpI hoXw \ne\nWw. 

        sNSnbpsS Nphn \npw 60 - 75 sknao AIen cWvSp ]IpXnbmbn thWw cmkhfw \Im; BZytXv \v 2 amkn\p tijhpw, cWvSmatXv \v \mepamkn\p tijhpw \IWw.  BZy Ipnhnfbvv apgph cmkhfhpw HhWbmbn BZyhnfbpsS hnfshSpXn\ptijw \IWw.  hf{]tbmKn\p tijw DS Xs PetkN\w \IWw. 

        Ghmgbvv, 6 XhWIfmbn Xmsg]dbp coXnbn thWw hfw \Im.  CXv ImbpsS henhpw, IpebpsS Xqhpw Iqm klmbnpw.  

cmkhfw \tIWvS kabw

]mIyP\Iw : `mhIw : mcw ({Kmw/sNSn)

\v Hcp amkn\ptijw

40 : 65 : 60

cWvSv amkn\ptijw

30 : 50 : 60

aqv amkn\ptijw

30 : 00 : 60

\mev amkn\ptijw

30 : 00 : 60

Av amkn\ptijw

30 : 00 : 60

Ipe ]qambn hXn\p tijw

30 : 00 : 00

BsI

190 : 115 : 300

         ]mfb tImS C\w (agme Irjn) P\phcn amkn \SmhpXmWv.  IpIġv IpSw D]tbmKnp \\ G{]n - tabv amkw hsc 15 Znhknsemcn sNSn Hn\v 9 en shw F tXmXn \SWw. 

        hmg \Xn\ptijw kslw]v, sUbn, ]b FnhbntesXnepw 50 Intem hnv Hcp slIvSdn\v F tXmXn CShnfbmbn Irjn sNmw.  Cu hnf hnv hnXv 40 Znhkn\ptijw DgpXv ant\mSv tNWw.  Cu {]hrn XpScpXv \XmIpp. 

  • PetkN\w : 

(1)      th\¡mev 3 Znhknsemcn \\bvWw. 

(2)     \ \ohmgvNbpw, shpsIv Hgnhmepw {]mhnIamWw. 

(3)     ans Ahb\pkcnv 6 apX 10 hsc {]mhiyw PetkN\w \IWw. 

(4)     shůns Afhv `q\ncn \npw 2 aodn Xmsgbp efn Ghmg C\n\v (HIvtSm_ amkn \Sph) 10 FwFw (40 en/hmg) th\¡mev PetkN\w 2 Znhknsemcn \IWw.  CXv \ hnfhv e`nm klmbnpw.  XSn 3.5 Intem sshtm D]tbmKnv ]pXbnSpXpw hnfhv Iqm klmbnpw. 

  • If \nb{Ww : 

        hnfbpsS BZyIme hfm Ln CShnfbmbn ]bdv Irjn sNbvXv IfI ]qambn \nb{nmhpXmWv.  CXv {]mtbmKnIam efn Ubptdm 1.5 Intem Hcp slIvSdn\v Asæn HmIvkn^vfthms^ 0.2 Intem/slIvS IfapfpXn\v ap]v Xfn If \nb{Ww \SmhpXmWv.  CXn\ptijw apfp IfIsf ]mcmIzmv 0.4 Intem/slIvS Asæn sst^mtkv 0.4 Intem/slIvS F tXmXn D]tbmKnv \nb{nmw.  ImbnI amamWv Ahew_npsXn 4-5 XhW \nens D]cnXew am{Xw sNdpXmbn InfWw.  Ipe hcp kabw av CfcpXv.  ]ne hfsNSn D]tbmKnm ImbnI If \nb{Ww 1-2 XhWbmbn Ipdbvmw. 

  • Iv \inn : 

      Ipe hcpXphsc, hmgbpsS Nphnep IpI \innWw.  IpehXn\ptijw Htm cWvtSm IpI \ne\nWw. 

  • Ghmgbn CShnf Irjn :

      sk]vXw_ - HIvtSm_ amkw \Sp hmgbn shcnbpw Nocbpw em`Icambn CShnf Irjn sNmw.  CXv IpebpsS Xqs _m[nn.  ]dnbvpthWvSn shcn \v 95 Znhkn\ptijhpw hnn\p thWvSn 130 Znhkn\p tijhpw hnfshSpmhpXmWv.  Imn, tN\ Fnhbpw em`Icambn Ghmg Irjntmn CShnfbmbn IrjnsNmhpXmWv. 

  • SnjypIĨ Ghmg : 

        SnjypIĨ aptJ\ hfsc thKn \ KpW\nehmcapXpw, HtccoXnbnepXpw, tcmKIoS _m[bnmXpamb [mcmfw IpI DXv]mZn]nmw.   Nne C\fpsS DXv]mZ\aX Cu coXnbn XncsSp hmgbnse IpIfn \npw DXv]mZnnp SnjypIĨ ssXI D]tbmKnv Iqm\mIpw. 

  • \So AIew :

         G\v (t\{) 2 ao * 2 ao AIew \IWw (2500 hmg/slIvS). 

        Ghmgbn \ BZmbn\v hfsc CSXnnb coXnbnep Irjnbvv (high density planting) SnjypIĨ ssXI D]tbmKnmhpXmWv.

ta]d IrjncoXnbvv Xmsg]dbp coXnbnep AIew ]menmhpXmWv. 

(1)      2 ao * 3 ao  - Hcp Ipgnbn 2 IpI hoXw (1 slIvSdn 3332 IpI 1666 IpgnIfn).

(2)     1.75 ao * 1.75 ao - 1 Ipgnbn 1 IphoXw (1 slIvSdn 3265 IpI) 

IpgnbpsS henw :  50 sknao * 50 sk.ao * 50 sk.ao 

  • \So coXn : 

\SpXn\v 15 Znhkw ap]v Ipgn XmdmWw.  IpgnI Imenhfw 15-20 Intembpw, taapw tN an{inXw D]tbmKnv \ndbvWw.  SnjypIĨ ssXI CXn\p apIfnembn \SWw.  \SpXn\p ap]mbn ssXI hncnp mnIv IhdpI thcpIġv tISp]m coXnbn amWw.  \SpXv IgnbpXpw sshIptcampXmWv A`nImayw.  \Xn\p tijw 2 BgvNtbmfw Cu ssXIġv XW \IpXv kqcymLmXw Hgnhmm klmbnpw.  \Xn\ptijw BZy Zn\fn Fm Znhkhpw PetkN\w \IWw. 

kky kwcWw

        \Sptm Iv Hn\v 30 {Kmw Imt_m^ypdm \IWw.  \v 60 Znhkhpw 90 Znhkhpw BIptm 15 {Kmw hoXw Imt_m^yqdm \IWw.  {][m\ tcmKIoS_m[ AIpXn\v kwtbmPnX \nb{nX am A\phnmhpXmWv. 

  • ssPh cmkhf : 

        Irjn ew Hcpptm Hcp In\v 15-20 Intem ssPhhfw /  Imenhfw, 1 Intem Ipmbw F tXmXn  tNWw. ]mIyP\Iw :  `mhIw :  mcw Fnh 300 : 115 : 450 {Kmw/hmg F tXmXn 6 XhWIfmbn Xmsg ]dbp coXnbn \IWw. 

\tIWvS kabw

]mIyP\Iw : `mhIw : mcw {Kmw/hmg)

\v Hmw amkn

50 : 65 : 65

\v cWvSmw amkn

50 : 00 : 65

\v aqmw amkn

50 : 50 : 65

\v \memw amkn

50 : 00 : 65

\v Amw amkn

50 : 00 : 65

\v Ggmw amkn

50 : 00 : 125

av ]cnNcW am 

IoS

  • XSpgp :  (HtUmbvt]mdkv temPntImfnkv) 

        CXns hWvSpI amWhWvSpambn kmayapWvSv.  ChbpsS B{IaWw Cu ASp Imembn AXncqamWv.  {]mb]qnbmb s]hWvSpI hmgSbn sNdp ZzmcfpWvSmn apbnSpp.  Cu ap hncnp ]pdp hcp ]pgp XS hym]Iambn Xnp XopIbpw AXphgn hmg HSnv hoWv \inpIbpw sNpw.

\nb{W amw:- 

(1)      IrjnbnSw hrnbmbn kqnemWv {][m\ambn A\phntWvSXv. 

(2)     B{IaW hnt[bamb hmgI amWapssS amn Xobnv \innWw. 

(3)     hnfshSpXn\ptijw hmgbpsS Ahtijnp `mK ampIbpw \innpbpw sNWw. 

(4)     B{IaWw _m[nXpw AmXpamb hmgIfpsS ]pds t]mfamnbXn\ptijw \ntinnp GsXnepw IoS\min\nI D]tbmKnWw.  Fm CeIfpsSbpw Afnepw, hmgbpsS amWnepw Nppap efnepw ]pgp DWvSmnbnp Zzmcfn IqSn kvt{]bdns \na\m{Kw ISn IoS\min\n XfnWw.  Iyq\mt^mkv 0.05 iXam\w Asæn tmss]dnt^mkv 0.03 iXam\w, Asæn Im_mdn 0.2 iXam\w ChbntesXnepw D]tbmKnmw.  hoWvSpw D]{Zhw ImWpsn 3 BgvNbvptijw Hcn IqSn IoS\min\n {]tbmKnWw. 

  • hmg amW hWvSv :  (tImkvtams]mfnkv tkmUnUkv) 

        hmgIrjn sNp Fm efnepw Cu hWvSns D]{Zhw ImWm Ignbpw.  s]hWvSpI hmgbpsS amWn ZzmcapWvSmn apbnSpp.  Cu ap hncnpWvSmIp ]pgp amWs Xnp \innpIbpw, AXphgn hmgbpsS hf apcSnpIbpw sNpw.  ]q hfsbmdmb hmgbn D]{Zhw DWvsSn hmgbnse CeIfpsS Fw, IpebpsS henhpw, ImbpsS Fhpw Fnh IpdbpIbpw sNpw. 

\nb{W am : 

(1)      Irjn ew \n_ambpw hrnbmbn kqnWw. 

(2)     \ BtcmKyap IpI am{Xw \Sm D]tbmKnpI. 

(3)     Irjn ens ASnbnep ]mfnI  kqcy{]Imiw G¡pXn\pthWvSn \ Bgn DgpXp adnWw. 

(4)     Ins amWns ]pdw `mKw sNn Ifv 3-4 Znhkw shbnev DWnbXn\ptijw, NmWIhpw Nmepw tN an{inXw ]qipI. 

(5)     Acao \ofap hmgS \ofn ]nfv Irjnev \nn sIWnI Hcpmw.  {]mb]qnbmb hWvSpI cm{XnImev CXntemIjnsSpw.  Chsb shfpns\ \innp Ifbm\pw km[npw. 

  • Ahct AYhm F^nUv (s]temWnb ss\t{Kms\thmk) 

        Iq\miw hnXp aWvSbSv tcmKn\v ImcWamb sshdkpIsf hlnp IoSamWnXv. 

\nb{W amw

(1)      25 {Kmw t^mtdv 10 Pn Asæn 10 {Kmw Imt_m^yqdm 3 Pn Hmtcm hmgbptSbpw Nphn CSWw.

(2)     \v 75 - mw Znhkw hmgbpsS CeIfpsS An 12.5 {Kmw t^mtdv 10 Pn Asæn 10 {Kmw Imt_m^yqdUm 3 Pn, Asæn an 25 {Kmw t^mtdv, AYhm 20 {Kmw Imt_m^yqdm hmg Hn\v F tXmXn \IWw.  CXv 165-mw Znhkhpw BhnWw.

(3)     sNZfn C\n\v 25 {Kmw t^mtdv 10 Pn Asæn 20 {Kmw Imt_m^yqdm 3 Pn an tNWw.  \v 20, 95, 165 Znhkfn BhnWw. 

  • CeXpc - kv]nUn eo^vssa\ (Akzm\nb kv]ojnkv) 

        ssUsatXmtbv 0.05 iXam\w Asæn t^mkv^mantUm 0.3 iXam\w D]tbmKnv \nb{nmw. 

  • \na hncI :- 

        {][m\ kv]ojnkpI an Xpcph, thcn sIpWvSmph, thcn AwK sshIrXw DWvSmph, thcn sNdnb IqSpt]mep Ah DWvSmph FnhbmWv.  B{IaWw cqamhptm CeIfpsS Fw IpebpsS Xqw, ImbvIfpsS Fw F\nh Ipdbpw. 

        thn ]pmv 1 Intembpw, 0.5 {Kmw I aXm LSIw ASnb Imt_m^yqdm\pw hmg \Sptm amWn \In Cu \namhncIsf \nb{nmw.  ]c cq]nep IoS\min\n \Iptm an \ \\hpWvSmbncnWw. \\hp IpdhpWvsSn PetkN\w DS\Sn \IWw. 

tcmK : 

  • aWvSbSp tcmKw :- 

        CXv Ahct AYhm F^nUv ]cp Hcp sshdkv tcmKamWv. 

\nb{W am: 

(1)      tcmK hmlnIfmb IoSsf \nb{nm\p IoS\min\n D]tbmKnpI. 

(2)     tcmKw _m[n sNSnIsf \innpI. 

(3)     tcmKanm IpI \Sm D]tbmKnpI.  Iqchn, ImntIe, Rmenqh, IqnmI Fnh tcmKw _m[nm C\fmWv. 

  • ]\ma hmw (^yqtkdnbw HmIvknkvt]mdw) 

(1)           tcmKw _m[np C\fpsS IpIsf 0.1 - 0.2 iXam\w hocyap Im_Umknw emb\nbn apnbXn\ptijw \Sm D]tbmKnpI. 

(2)          AkpJw _m[n hmgbpsS Nphn 0.2 iXam\w hocyap Ims_Umknw Hgnv IpXnpXv tcmKw ap hmgIfntebvv ]ScpXv XSbpw 

(3)         AkpJw _m[n hmgbpsS `mK, amWapssS \innWw.. 

(4)        Ipmbw 1 Intem Hcp Ipgnv F tXmXn \IWw.  ]mfbtImS, tdm_, t\{ Fo C\ġv tcmK{]Xntcm[ tijnbpWvSv. 

  • CepntcmKw (ssatImkvt^dne kv]ojokv) 

(1)      KpcpXcambn tcmKw _m[n CeI apdnpamn Xobnv \innWw. 

(2)     1 iXam\w t_mtUm an{inXw tcmK_m[ IWvSpIgnmepS XfnWw.  sXp]Snmd akq Iment\mS\p_nmWv Cu tcmKw km[mcW ImWmdv.  tcmKns Xo{hXb\pkcnv 2 BgvNbnsemcn  F {Ian 5-6 kv{]bnwKv \SWw. 

(3)     ] Hmbn 1 iXam\w Cu tcmKw \nb{npXn\v DaamWv. 

(4)     tcmK eWw IWvSmepS Im_Umknw (0.1 iXam\w) Asæn HnShn Znhkfn ss{SUntam^v (0.05%) amtImsk_v (0.2 %), Im_Umknw (0.1%) Ch XfnWw.  tcmKns Xo{hXb\pkcnv 2 BgvNbnsemcn F {Ian 3-4 kvt{] \SmhpXmWv. 

  • sImt tcmKw (_\m\ {_mIvSv samsskIv sshdkv) 

        Xrqcnse t\{ C\nemWv BZyambn Cu tcmKw ImWsXv.  Ime{ItaW Cu tcmKw ]mfbtImS, sImS\nmIp, sam, ImntIe, ]qh, Iqchn, sNZfn Fo C\fnepw ImWsp.  GhmgbnemWv Cu tcmKw IqSpXembpw ImWpXv. 

        Ghmgbn, BZyhfm ImeLn (2 amkw {]mbw) XSbn ]nv \ndn \ofnep hcI {]XysSpp.  Fm sImt tcmKw _m[n Fm hmgIfpw Cu eWw ImWnWsan.  Fncpmepw Cu eWw IWvSpIgnm B hmg sImt tcmKw _m[nXp Xs Fp XosSpmw.  ay`mKw DWnb hcIfpw ZriyamWv.  Ccnep hcI BZyw {_u \ndhpw {ItaW Idpp\ndhpw Bbn amdpw.  Cu tcmKw hmgbpsS Ce HgnsI _mn Fm `mKsbpw _m[npw.  Cu hcIfpsS \ofw tIhew annao apX 10 sknao hscbmImdpWvSv.  3-mw amkw apX GsXnepw Hcp Ln DWnb hcItfmSp eWw tcmK_m[nXamb hmg ImWnmdpWvSv.  Nne hmgI Ccnep eW IpepXphsc \ne\npXv ImWmw.  Nne hmgbn tcmK_m[nX `mK DWpXnt\msSmw tcmKeWhpw ampt]mImdpWvSv 

tcmKw _m[n hmgbn sNdnb Ipe am{Xta DWvSmIp.  ImbvI sNdpXpw hfXpw, hnfdnb ]\ndtmSp IqSnbXpw Bbncnpw.  tcmKns Xo{hXb\pkcnv ImbvIfpsS hennepw \ndnepw GIpdnepI DWvSmIpw. 

tcmKw _m[n hmgbpsS IpI D]tbmKnm ]mSn.  tcmKeWw ImWnp hmgssXI DSs\ Xs \innp IfbWw. 

  • shcn samsskv sshdkv tcmKw 

        Cu tcmKw km[mcWbmbn t\{, ]mfbtImS, Iqchn, tImkvX_, t]p, `nwtI, samqh, Zn kmK, ckIZfn, aqkmHt\m Fo C\fnepw ImWpp. 

        CeIfnse ]\ndw AhnShnsSbmbn \jvSsSpXmWv eWw.  ]pXnb CeIfn kamcambn Ccnep hcI ImWpp.  Ce hfcpXn\\pkcnv Npfpn, hi hfv ImWsSpp.  IqSmsX CebpsS hoXnbpw Ipdbpp.  ITn\ambn tcmKw _m[n hmgbpsS t]mfIfnepw, XSbnepw Nne `mK Nopt]mhpXmbn ImWmw.  tcmKw _m[n hmgI sNdnb Ipetb XcpIbpp.  CXv F^nUv ]cp sshdkv tcmKamWv.  AXn\m tcmKanm IpItf \Sm D]tbmKnmhp.  tcmKw _m[n IpI \ow sNWw.  IoSsf \nb{nm\p IoS\min\nI D]tbmKnWw.  tcmK_m[nX efn ]bdph hnfIsfm, shcntbm CShnfbmbn hfcpXv.